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PSYC 2301 (23)
Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2301
Professor
Tarry Ahuja
Semester
Fall

Description
 Health promotion: Good health or wellness is a personal struggle (chocolate or fruit) and collective achievement (as a society what have we chosen). WHO defines it as he process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Different perspectives (individual, medical practitioner etc, you typically have these and they are stuck with you since when you are a child, a medical practitioner may have these beliefs and try to push them on you as well. Media as terms of industry such as a diet pill or ‘ab crunch machine’, and it effects how you think about health  Lalonde Report: Proposed the concept of health field: Identified two main health principles: Health-care system, prevention of health problems and promotion of good health (lets stay healthy rather than having to treat these problems). This was the first modern government in the western world to realize that our emphasis on a biomedical health care system is WRONG.  Role of health behaviours: Patterns of disease has shifted because what used to kill us were things that we can cure today, as where today things that are killing us are things we are doing to ourselves such as smoking (modifying our health behaviours can lead for fifty percent reduction in death).  Benefits in modifying health behaviours: Reduction in deaths due to life-style related disease, increased life expectancy, longer disease-free period (quality of life, people in the health field are always trying to longer our quality of life by safer cars etc), reduced overall health care costs (about 200 billion)  Risk factors for the leading cause of death: Heart disease, cancer, stroke, accidental injuries, chronic lung disease (all of these things reduce your quality of life).  What are health behaviours: Behaviours employed by people to enhance or maintain their health. Health behaviours good or bad become health habits. Health behaviour is something you consciously do, but a health habits is something you do almost unconsciously, it is a health behaviour that is well established and is performed automatically (if it is reinforced early we are resistant to change them).  Influence Factors of health behaviour: Socio-economic factors (if we compare a heart surgeon and a janitor, the janitor doesn’t make as much money and works longer hours doesn’t have as many options so they could have worse health), age (when you are younger typically parents feed you well, when in university not main priority), gender, values, personal control, social influence, personal goals, access to health-care (if there is no gym or health food store around you it will influence how you live your life) and location (if you live in like Hong Kong and you cant just run in the park it will affect how you live your life).  ******Health habits in children and adolescents: Health habits are strongly affected by: socialization (parents as role models, they will teach you your set of values), Teachable moment (educational opportunity- there are certain things that will happen in your life as a kid and you use this to teach a third person-when an other kid gets hurt you may tell them to clean their wounds), closing the window of vulnerability (adolescence-we all know that in grade school or early high school you are scared and want to fit in, you will do anything you need to do to survive. If every cool kid is smoking you are more likely to do so)  Benefits of being at risk: may eliminate or prevent poor health habits (if we can be tested for things we think we may be predisposed for, efficient and effective use of health dollars, help identify risk factors in this patient population.  Problems with identifying at risk people: Hypervigalence (over sensitive to stressors-have one drink of punch, worried they will be an alcoholic or the other extreme and they may become defensive and disregard factors  Ethical Issues: They must be considered when identifying at-risk people. Do you identify at-risk people if the risk is low (where do you draw the line). Identification may initiate symptoms (such as depression), what if there is nothing you can do to prevent it or deal with it., interpersonal issues may arise (breaking up with boyfriend because there’s nothing to live for)  Health habits in elderly are different for other ages; you need to approach things differently when you get to a specific age. They need to improve their quality of live where, as people my age need to maintain the quality of life. Factors to consider include (exercise, social activities, monitor alcohol consumption, controlled diet, vaccination)  Other factors to consider: Gender and ethnic differences can influence vulnerability to particular health risks: Alcohol consumption (men vs. women. Men can break alcohol down more), smoking (aboriginals- smoke a lot more), drug-use, exercise  How can we change health behaviours: Our goal is to change views and prevent unhealthy behaviours. Different approaches include: Educational appeals (someone who is credible colorful, concise). Fear appeals: Use fear to change behaviour, may be counterproductive and control approach (can be counter- productive, could look like its funny instead of shock, so we should also use a coupled approach and also have facts) Message framing-Messages that stress beliefs (frames audience, could stress harms, you could stress positives or negatives depending on what you want and frame message accordingly)  Models of health behaviour change: Changing beliefs instead of attitudes. Models: social cognition model (expectancy-value theory, engage in behaviours that will be successful and they value) Heal
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