Nervous system- Complex network of interconnected nerve fibers which function to regulate many
important bodily functions (response to and recovery from stress). Gives input to brain and spinal cord
using sensory receptors. Motor nerve fibers provide output from brain or spinal cord to muscles and other
organs which leads to voluntary/involuntary movement
Limbic System: Plays important role in stress and emotional responses (border the midline of the brain).
Amygdale and hippocampus are involved in detection of threat and in emotionally charged memories
Atherosclerosis : Caused by deposits of cholesterol and other substances on arterial walls, form plaque and
narrow arteries, reduces blood flow therefore it reduces nutrients which leads to tissue damage.
Angina pectoris (chest pain that sometimes occurs because muscle tissue of heart must continue its activity
without sufficient air or adequate removal of carbon dioxide/other waste.
Myocardial infarction: Most likely will happen when clot develops in coronary vessel and blocks blood flow
to the heart (heart attack)
Blood Pressure: Force that blood exerts against the blood vessel walls. Systole (where blood is forced out
of the heart) Diastole (Where heart refills with blood) and falls to the lowest point. Blood pressure is the
ratio of these two pressures. Hypertension is chronically increasing blood pressure
Blood: Adult body contains about 5L of blood, consisting of plasma and cells.
Plasma (fluid portion of blood) 55% of blood volume
Cells: Suspended in plasma, contains plasma proteins and plasma electrodes, as well as substances being
transported by blood (oxygen). Remaining 45% of cells are manufactured in bone marrow (substance in the
hollow cavities of bones).
White blood cells: Important for healing by absorbing and removing foreign substances
Lymphocytes: Produce antibodies (destroy foreign substances by antigen-antibody reaction). Important for
fighting infection and disease
Red blood cells: Contain hemoglobin, needed to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide through body
Platelets: Clump together to block small holes which develop in blood vessels and important for blood
Blood flow: responsible for regulation of body temperature. When temperature is too high, skin blood
vessels dilate and blood sent to skin so the heat will be lost. When the temperature is too low, blood vessels
constrict and blood is kept away form the skin so that heat will be conserved and body temperature will be
Disorders related to white cell production: Leukemia
Disorders related to red cell production: Anemia
Clotting disorders: Hemophilia
Respiratory system- Involves a number of organs (nose, mouth, pharynx, trachea, diaphragm, abdominal
muscles, lungs). Air is inhaled through the nose and mouth, passes through pharynx, and larynx to the
trachea (inspiration causes lungs to expand inside thorax (chest walls), expiration is brought about by
relaxation of lungs, reduces volume of lungs within thorax.
Respiratory functions depend partly on the chemical composition of blood (if bloods carbon dioxide level is
too high, respiratory centre will be stimulated and respiration increases. Also responsible for coughing,
when dust and foreign material gets caught in mucus and air passages, then are swallowed when too much
mucus we cough.
Metabolism: Where the food gets changed into form suitable for absorption into the blood
o Food lubricated by saliva in mouth forms soft lump (bolus). Passes through esophagus. Stomach
produces gastric secretions to further the digestive process. Sight/thought of food starts the flow
of gastric juices. As food goes from stomach to duodenum (intersection of stomach and lower
intestine), pancreatic juices are secreted into duodenum, which break down proteins, carbs and
fat. Liver produces bile and enters duodenum and breaks down fats (bile stored in gallbladder).
o Most metabolic products are water-soluble and are easily transported into the blood, others are
not and therefore must be transported with plasma as complex substances combined with
plasma proteins (lipids) include fats, cholesterol, lecithin). Excess of lipids leads to hyper
lipidemia o Absorption of food primarily happens in small intestine, producing enzymes which complete the
breakdown of proteins to amino acids-small intestine is under control by the sympathetic
(reduces metabolism) and parasympathetic nervous system (speeds up metabolism)
o Food passes into large intestine and acts as a storage organ for accumulation of food residue and
helps with re-absortion of water. Entry of feces into rectum makes feel of expelling solid waste.
o Disorders of digestion system: Diarrhea, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, gallstones,
Renal system: consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. Kidneys are responsible for
regulation of bodily fluids (produces urine), ureters contain smooth muscle tissue which contract and cause
waves to move urine to bladder (a muscle bag that acts as a reservoir for urine). Urethra conducts urine
from bladder out of body.
Kidneys maintain adequate balance of sodium and potassium and c