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PSYC 2301 (23)


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PSYC 2301
Tarry Ahuja

TEXTBOOK  Nervous system- Complex network of interconnected nerve fibers which function to regulate many important bodily functions (response to and recovery from stress). Gives input to brain and spinal cord using sensory receptors. Motor nerve fibers provide output from brain or spinal cord to muscles and other organs which leads to voluntary/involuntary movement  Limbic System: Plays important role in stress and emotional responses (border the midline of the brain). Amygdale and hippocampus are involved in detection of threat and in emotionally charged memories  Atherosclerosis : Caused by deposits of cholesterol and other substances on arterial walls, form plaque and narrow arteries, reduces blood flow therefore it reduces nutrients which leads to tissue damage.  Angina pectoris (chest pain that sometimes occurs because muscle tissue of heart must continue its activity without sufficient air or adequate removal of carbon dioxide/other waste.  Myocardial infarction: Most likely will happen when clot develops in coronary vessel and blocks blood flow to the heart (heart attack)  Blood Pressure: Force that blood exerts against the blood vessel walls. Systole (where blood is forced out of the heart) Diastole (Where heart refills with blood) and falls to the lowest point. Blood pressure is the ratio of these two pressures. Hypertension is chronically increasing blood pressure  Blood: Adult body contains about 5L of blood, consisting of plasma and cells.  Plasma (fluid portion of blood) 55% of blood volume  Cells: Suspended in plasma, contains plasma proteins and plasma electrodes, as well as substances being transported by blood (oxygen). Remaining 45% of cells are manufactured in bone marrow (substance in the hollow cavities of bones).  White blood cells: Important for healing by absorbing and removing foreign substances  Lymphocytes: Produce antibodies (destroy foreign substances by antigen-antibody reaction). Important for fighting infection and disease  Red blood cells: Contain hemoglobin, needed to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide through body  Platelets: Clump together to block small holes which develop in blood vessels and important for blood clotting  Blood flow: responsible for regulation of body temperature. When temperature is too high, skin blood vessels dilate and blood sent to skin so the heat will be lost. When the temperature is too low, blood vessels constrict and blood is kept away form the skin so that heat will be conserved and body temperature will be maintained.  Disorders related to white cell production: Leukemia  Disorders related to red cell production: Anemia  Clotting disorders: Hemophilia  Respiratory system- Involves a number of organs (nose, mouth, pharynx, trachea, diaphragm, abdominal muscles, lungs). Air is inhaled through the nose and mouth, passes through pharynx, and larynx to the trachea (inspiration causes lungs to expand inside thorax (chest walls), expiration is brought about by relaxation of lungs, reduces volume of lungs within thorax.  Respiratory functions depend partly on the chemical composition of blood (if bloods carbon dioxide level is too high, respiratory centre will be stimulated and respiration increases. Also responsible for coughing, when dust and foreign material gets caught in mucus and air passages, then are swallowed when too much mucus we cough. Digestive system  Metabolism: Where the food gets changed into form suitable for absorption into the blood o Food lubricated by saliva in mouth forms soft lump (bolus). Passes through esophagus. Stomach produces gastric secretions to further the digestive process. Sight/thought of food starts the flow of gastric juices. As food goes from stomach to duodenum (intersection of stomach and lower intestine), pancreatic juices are secreted into duodenum, which break down proteins, carbs and fat. Liver produces bile and enters duodenum and breaks down fats (bile stored in gallbladder). o Most metabolic products are water-soluble and are easily transported into the blood, others are not and therefore must be transported with plasma as complex substances combined with plasma proteins (lipids) include fats, cholesterol, lecithin). Excess of lipids leads to hyper lipidemia o Absorption of food primarily happens in small intestine, producing enzymes which complete the breakdown of proteins to amino acids-small intestine is under control by the sympathetic (reduces metabolism) and parasympathetic nervous system (speeds up metabolism) o Food passes into large intestine and acts as a storage organ for accumulation of food residue and helps with re-absortion of water. Entry of feces into rectum makes feel of expelling solid waste. o Disorders of digestion system: Diarrhea, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, gallstones, appendicitis  Renal system: consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. Kidneys are responsible for regulation of bodily fluids (produces urine), ureters contain smooth muscle tissue which contract and cause waves to move urine to bladder (a muscle bag that acts as a reservoir for urine). Urethra conducts urine from bladder out of body.  Kidneys maintain adequate balance of sodium and potassium and c
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