Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
Carleton (2,000)
PSYC (700)
Chapter 3

PSYC 2400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Personality Psychology, Psychopathology, Sleep Deprivation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2400
Professor
Adelle Forth
Chapter
3

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
PSYC2400B Textbook
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY
CH 3
Police Interrogations
- One of the main goals of a police interrogation is to obtain a confession of
guilt from the suspect
- In the past, physically coercive tactics were often used to extract confessions
from suspects in the mid-twentieth century, for example, whipping was
occasionally used to obtain confessions
o Even thought these techniques have become less frequent, some
people have argued that these tactics have been replaced with more
subtle, psychologically based interrogation techniques, such as lying
about evidence, promising lenient treatment, and implying threats to
loved ones
- Because offenders are typically reluctant confess, psychological coercion
must often be used to secure confessions
The Reid Model of Interrogation
- One of the interrogation training programs offered to many NA cops are
based on a book written by Inbau et al. (2013) called Criminal Interrogation
and Confessions
o This book describes the Reid Model of interrogation, a technique
originally developed by John E. Reid, a polygrapher from Chicago
- Generally consists of a 3 part process
o The first part stage of the process is to gather evidence related to the
crime and to interview witnesses and victims
o The second stage is to conduct a non-accusatorial interview of the
suspect to assess any evidence of deception
o The third stage is to conduct an accusatorial interrogation of the
suspect if he or she is perceived to be guilty at this stage, a 9 step
procedure is implemented, which the primary objective being to
secure a confession from the suspect
9 step procedure
1. The suspect is immediately confronted with their guilt the interrogator can
imply there is evidence against them even if none exists
2. Psychological themes are then developed that allow the suspect to
rationalize or excuse the crime (ex. A murderer may be told that the
interrogators understand why he committed the crime and that the crime
was even justified)
3. The interrogator interrupts any statements of denial by the suspect to ensure
the suspect doesnt get the upper hand in the interrogation
4. The interrogator overcomes the suspects objections to the charges
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

5. If the suspect becomes withdrawn, the interrogator ensures that they have
the suspects attention and that the suspect doesnt tune out the
interrogation techniques can be used for this, such as reducing
psychological distance between the interrogator and the suspect (eg. By
physically moving closer to the suspect)
6. The interrogator exhibits sympathy and understanding, and the suspect is
urged to come clean
7. The suspect is offered explanations for the crime, which makes self-
incrimination easier to achieve (eg. Interrogator may suggest the murder was
an accident)
8. Once the suspect accepts responsibility for the crime, typically by agreeing
with on of the alternative explanations, the interrogator develops this
admission into a full confession for the crime in question
9. Finally, the interrogator gets the suspect to write and sign a full confession
- The Reid model is based on the idea that people make choices that they
think will maximize their well-being given the constraints they face
- Its assumed that during the accusatory phase of interrogation that the
suspects fear of confessing outweighs their anxiety caused by remaining
deceptive (about their involvement in the crime)
o The Reid model relies on psychologically based tactics that attempt to
reverse this so that the consequences of confessing become more
desirable than the anxiety related to the deception
- These interrogation techniques can be broken down into two general
categories; minimization techniques and maximization techniques
- Minimization techniques: soft shell tactics used by police interrogations to
provide the weakening suspect with moral justification and face-saving
excuses for the crime in question
- Maximization techniques: scare tactics that convey the interrogators
certain belief that the suspect is guilty and that denials will fail
-
Potential Problems with the Reid Model of Interrogation
- Three problems in particular that deserve our attention; the first two relate
to th4 ability of investigators to detect deception and to the biases that may
result when an interrogator believes, perhaps incorrectly, that a suspect is
guilty
- The third problem has to do with the coercive and/or suggestive nature of
certain interrogation practices and the possibility that these practices will
result in various types of false confessions
- Its claimed that training in the Reid model of interrogation provides police
officers with the means to accurately detect deception; theres currently very
little research to support the view that police officers, or anyone else for that
matter, can detect deception with any degree of accuracy
- Recent meta-analyses suggest that this training approach will have limited
utility because lie-catchers already tend to focus on these objective cues and
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

the cues are simply too weak to be of any value when trying to distinguish
between truth-tellers and liars
- Its only when suspects knowingly and voluntarily waive these rights that
their statements can be used as evidence against them
o Research has demonstrated that Miranda-type rights may not provide
the protection that theyre assumed to provide
o One significant problem is that many individuals dont understand
their rights when theyre presented to them
- Canadians facing an investigative interview situation will not fully
comprehend their rights, and therefore are unable to make a fully informed
decision regarding whether or not they should waive their rights
o Not only does this mean that the rights and freedoms of Canadian
suspects arent always being protected, but it also means that
evidence collected by the police in their interviews could be deemed
inadmissible in courts
- A second problem with the Reid model is investigator bias when the police
begin their interrogation already believing the suspect is guilty
o When people form a belief about something before they enter a
situation, they often unknowingly seek out and interpret information
in that situation in a way that verifies their initial belief
- In a mock interrogation study, the researchers had students act as
interrogators or suspects some interrogators were led to believe that some
suspects were guilty and some were innocent
o Results found that:
Interrogators with guilty expectations asked more questions
that indicated their belied in the suspects guilt
Interrogators with guilty expectations used a higher frequency
of interrogation techniques compared with interrogators with
innocent expectations
Interrogators with guilty expectations judged more suspects to
be guilty, regardless of whether a suspect was actually guilty
Interrogators indicated that they exerted more pressure on
suspects to confess when the suspect was innocent
Suspects had fairly accurate perceptions of interrogator
behaviour (innocent suspects believed their interrogators
were exerting more pressure)
Neutral observers viewed interrogators with guilty
expectations as more coercive, especially against innocent
suspects, and they viewed suspects in the guilty expectation
condition as more defensive
Interrogation Practices and the Courts
- The key issues a judge must consider when faced with a questionable
confession are whether the confession was made voluntarily and whether
the defendant was competent when he/she provided the confession
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version