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Chapter

Forensics Psychopathy.odt

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2400
Professor
Kevin Nunes
Semester
Winter

Description
Defining Psychopathy • Psychopath: a person with a collection of interpersonal, affective and behavioural characteristics including Interpersonal,Affective, Lifestyle andAntisocial deficits (manipulation, lack of remorse or empathy, impulsivity and antisocial behaviours). These do not necessarily have to be criminals – can be politicians, judges, etc and they may not even be committing any crimes. • Base Rate: indication of the prevalence of a specific problem (psychopathy) within a specific population (serial killers): • 90% of serial killers are psychopathic (study: overestimate because he applied the tools to people described in the media – proxy methodology). • 1% of the general population are psychopaths (reliable estimate). • 10-25% of the prison population are psychopaths. • 44% of cop killers are psychopaths. • 20% of male prisoners score above 30 (mean=22). • 14% of female prisoners score above 30 (mean=19). • Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD): (suffers from the lifestyle deficits) characterized by a history of behaviour in which the rights of others are violated; they have demonstrated conduct disorder by age 15 and display at least 3 of the following symptoms after 15: • Repeat criminal acts; • Deceitfulness; • Impulsivity ; • Irritability; • Reckless behaviours; • Irresponsibility, and • Lack of remorse. • APD places more emphasis on antisocial behaviours than the PCL-R. Nearly all psychopathic offenders meet the criteria forAPD but most offenders diagnosed withAPD are not psychopaths. 60-80% of prisoners haveAPD. Assessing Psychopaths • There are a few: • Experience Impressions “In my clinical opinion”: based on their experience, training, case-by- case. Though used, it’s frowned upon mostly because clinicians are inaccurate. • Self-Report Inventories: MMPI, MCI, PPI. Psychopaths can lie on self-report inventories so they’re not great. • Informant Rating:ASPD. Where you get information about the person via other sources. (Resolves the self-report problems). • Structured Clinical: DSM-IV (equated to antisocial personality disorder, though psychopathy and APD are different), PCL-R, PCL:YV (youth version). Best approach. • 2.1 PCL-R: Psychopathy-Checklist Revised • PCL-R: the most popular method of assessing psychopathy in adults (Dr. Hare); the assessment instrument is as follows... • 20 items scored using a semi-structured interview and a review of file information to assess the following three features: • Interpersonal Features: glib/superficially charming, grandiose/inflated self-worth, manipulative. • Affective Features: shallow emotions, lack of guilty, callous. • Behavioural (Lifestyle) Features: impulsivity, antisocial acts, poor anger control, criminal behaviours. • 3-point scale to measure psychopaths (2, scoring over 30 to 40), mixed – most criminals (1, scoring between 20 and 30) and non-psychopaths (0, scoring between 0 and 20). • 3. Psychopaths... (and why it’s important) • 3.1And Violence • Motives for Murder study: examining the relationship between psychopathy and how murders are committed by dividing them into Reactive (unplanned, crimes of passion, extreme provocation) and Instrumental (planned, settle a score). • Results: of the people exhibiting Low PCL-R scores, Reactive murders were more likely; of the people exhibiting High PCL-R scores, Instrumental murders are more likely. • Re-offender study: retrospective assessment of male offenders; they examined the release decision without knowing what the PCL-R score; they looked at parole releases and mandatory supervision (statutory – after serving ⅔ of sentence) releases. • Results: people re-offend as PCL-R score increases; statutory releases increase the likelihood of re-offending. InYouth • Juvenile Death Penalty study: hypothesis – if the person is labelled a psychopath, how does it affect the jury? Two cases
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