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PSYC 2400 (77)
Chapter 12

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PSYC 2400
Adelle Forth

Chapter 12 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW - Youths in the 17 and 18 centuray who committed crimes were tried as adults - Juvenile delinquents act; 1908;;309 o Applied to youth ages 7-16 o Youth were called delinquent rather than offenders o Children could be transferred in serious cases to the adult court o Punishments for delinquent would be consistent with how a parent punished their child o Judges had discretion and sentencing options increased (foster care, fines, institutionalization) o PROBLEMS; denied right to council, appeal and judges imposed open ended questions - Youth Offenders Act; 1984;; 310 o Acknowledged that youth were to be held responsible for their crimes, however looked at the different levels of cognitive development o Protect the public from young offenders o Youth should get all the rights o Have to be at least 12 to be charged with criminal offence o Cases could be diverted- have to plea guilty; absolute discharge, fine, etc o 16 and 17 year olds charged with murder, manslaughter or aggravated sexual assault tried as adult o Goal was to make youth more accountable for their behaviour while supporting rehabilitation through treatment programs and providing alternatives to incarceration for less serious crimes o PROBLEMS; think short sentences are too light, don’t like minimum age is 12 - Youth Criminal Justice Act; 2003;;311 o Objectives; prevent crime, provide meaningful consequences and encourage responsibility of behaviour, improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth in the community o Extrajudicial measures measures taken to keep young offenders out of custody o Naming youth cannot report the names to public, but rather release only under special circumstances(serious crimes) o Changes to the Canadian criminal justice system  Less serious and less violent crimes should be kept out of the formal court process  The number of extrajudicial measures increased  More focus on prevention and reintergration  Transfers to adult court removed, instead youth court judges can impose adult sentences  Interests of victims are recognized YOUTH CRIME RATES - Decreasing over the past years - Probation is the most frequent sentence imposed ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG OFFENDERS - Assessing those under age 12 (pg 314) o Consent for clinicians is given by parents o Internalizing problems- behavioural difficulties such as anxiety, depression and obsessions o Externalizing problems- behavioural difficulties such as delinquency, fighting, bullying, lying and destructive behaviour  More difficult to treat, have more long term persistence  They are more stable, males more likely to have them (10:1 ratio)  ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder most common - Assessing the adolescent o Usually include a checklist o Collect information from both static (cannot be changed) and dynamic factors o Interviews can also be used in risk assessment o It is a challenge to separate developmental issues from persistent personality and character for the prediction of future offending - Rates of behaviour disorders in youth o 5-15% children display severe behavioural problems o Researchers have found that behavioural disorders tend to co-occur  20-50% of those who have ADHD have signs of CD and ODD - Trajectories of youthful offenders o Childhood onset vs adolescent on
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