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Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2400
Professor
Adelle Forth

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Chapter 12
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
- Youths in the 17th and 18th centuray who committed crimes were tried as adults
- Juvenile delinquents act; 1908;;309
o Applied to youth ages 7-16
o Youth were called delinquent rather than offenders
o Children could be transferred in serious cases to the adult court
o Punishments for delinquent would be consistent with how a parent punished their child
o Judges had discretion and sentencing options increased (foster care, fines,
institutionalization)
o PROBLEMS; denied right to council, appeal and judges imposed open ended questions
- Youth Offenders Act; 1984;; 310
o Acknowledged that youth were to be held responsible for their crimes, however looked
at the different levels of cognitive development
o Protect the public from young offenders
o Youth should get all the rights
o Have to be at least 12 to be charged with criminal offence
o Cases could be diverted- have to plea guilty; absolute discharge, fine, etc
o 16 and 17 year olds charged with murder, manslaughter or aggravated sexual assault
tried as adult
o Goal was to make youth more accountable for their behaviour while supporting
rehabilitation through treatment programs and providing alternatives to incarceration
for less serious crimes
o PROBLEMS; think short sentences are too light, don’t like minimum age is 12
- Youth Criminal Justice Act; 2003;;311
o Objectives; prevent crime, provide meaningful consequences and encourage
responsibility of behaviour, improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth in the
community
o Extrajudicial measures measures taken to keep young offenders out of custody
o Naming youth cannot report the names to public, but rather release only under special
circumstances(serious crimes)
o Changes to the Canadian criminal justice system
Less serious and less violent crimes should be kept out of the formal court
process
The number of extrajudicial measures increased
More focus on prevention and reintergration
Transfers to adult court removed, instead youth court judges can impose adult
sentences
Interests of victims are recognized
YOUTH CRIME RATES
- Decreasing over the past years
- Probation is the most frequent sentence imposed
ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG OFFENDERS
- Assessing those under age 12 (pg 314)
o Consent for clinicians is given by parents

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Description
Chapter 12 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW - Youths in the 17 and 18 centuray who committed crimes were tried as adults - Juvenile delinquents act; 1908;;309 o Applied to youth ages 7-16 o Youth were called delinquent rather than offenders o Children could be transferred in serious cases to the adult court o Punishments for delinquent would be consistent with how a parent punished their child o Judges had discretion and sentencing options increased (foster care, fines, institutionalization) o PROBLEMS; denied right to council, appeal and judges imposed open ended questions - Youth Offenders Act; 1984;; 310 o Acknowledged that youth were to be held responsible for their crimes, however looked at the different levels of cognitive development o Protect the public from young offenders o Youth should get all the rights o Have to be at least 12 to be charged with criminal offence o Cases could be diverted- have to plea guilty; absolute discharge, fine, etc o 16 and 17 year olds charged with murder, manslaughter or aggravated sexual assault tried as adult o Goal was to make youth more accountable for their behaviour while supporting rehabilitation through treatment programs and providing alternatives to incarceration for less serious crimes o PROBLEMS; think short sentences are too light, don’t like minimum age is 12 - Youth Criminal Justice Act; 2003;;311 o Objectives; prevent crime, provide meaningful consequences and encourage responsibility of behaviour, improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth in the community o Extrajudicial measures measures taken to keep young offenders out of custody o Naming youth cannot report the names to public, but rather release only under special circumstances(serious crimes) o Changes to the Canadian criminal justice system  Less serious and less violent crimes should be kept out of the formal court process  The number of extrajudicial measures increased  More focus on prevention and reintergration  Transfers to adult court removed, instead youth court judges can impose adult sentences  Interests of victims are recognized YOUTH CRIME RATES - Decreasing over the past years - Probation is the most frequent sentence imposed ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG OFFENDERS - Assessing those under age 12 (pg 314) o Consent for clinicians is given by parents o Internalizing problems- behavioural difficulties such as anxiety, depression and obsessions o Externalizing problems- behavioural difficulties such as delinquency, fighting, bullying, lying and destructive behaviour  More difficult to treat, have more long term persistence  They are more stable, males more likely to have them (10:1 ratio)  ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder most common - Assessing the adolescent o Usually include a checklist o Collect information from both static (cannot be changed) and dynamic factors o Interviews can also be used in risk assessment o It is a challenge to separate developmental issues from persistent personality and character for the prediction of future offending - Rates of behaviour disorders in youth o 5-15% children display severe behavioural problems o Researchers have found that behavioural disorders tend to co-occur  20-50% of those who have ADHD have signs of CD and ODD - Trajectories of youthful offenders o Childhood onset vs adolescent on
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