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Chapter 11

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PSYC 2400
Adelle Forth

Chapter 11 Psychopaths Psychopathy- a personality disorder defined by a collection of interpersonal, affective, and behavioural characteristics, including manipulation, lack of remorse of empathy, impulsivity, and antisocial behaviours. - Been called interspecies predators - Psychopaths are dominant, selfish, manipulative individuals who engage in impulsive and antisocial behaviours Assessment of Psychopathy - Hervey Cleckley –The Mask of Sanity o 16 features ranging from positive features(intelligence), emotional-interpersonal features (no remorse) and behavioural problems(antisocial) - Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) o 20 item rating scale that uses a semi structured interview and a review of file information to assess interpersonal, affective, and behavioural features of psychopathy o 3 point scale; 2=defiantly applies, 1=moderately applies, 0=does not apply o Score out of 40; 30+=psychopaths, 20 and below= non psychopaths o Correlated with 2 factors  Factor 1 reflects the combination of interpersonal and affective traits (violent, emotion deficits, poor treatment response)  Factor 2 combination of unstable and socially deviant traits (reoffending, substance abuse, lack of education, poor family background) o Three factor model (revised now there is 4 factors not 2) 1) Arrogant and deceitful 2) Deficient affective experience 3) Impulsive and irresponsible behaviour 4) Antisocial personality - Self-report questionnaires o advantages  Measure traits that are not easily observed  Easy to administer  Don’t have to worry about interpreter reliability o Problems;  Psychopaths often lie  May not have sufficient insight to correctly asses themselves  Since they lack emotions it’s hard for them to report o Psychopathic personality inventory revised  154 item inventory measures psychopathic traits  8 content scales  2 validity scales  Measures two factors (fearless dominance and impulsivity) o Self-report psychopathy scale  64 item scale  4 factors (erractive lifestyle, interpersonal manipulation, criminal tendencies and callous affect Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder-a personality disorder characterized by a history of behaviour in which the rights of others are violent - Before the age of 15 - Chronic patter disregarding the rights of others since the age of 15, after that a personal with APD would need to display 3 or more symptoms o Repeated engaging in criminal acts, deceitfulness, impulsivity, irritability, reckless behaviour, irresponsibility, lack of remorse o 80% of offenders in prison have APD o Most APD are not psychopaths but most psychopaths are APD Sociopath-a label used to describe a person whose psychopathic traits are assumed to be caused by environmental factors - Refuse to adapt to society - Same traits as psychopaths but it comes from poor parenting and other environmental factors - Rarely used in empirical literature and no assessment instruments have been developed to identify this construct Psychopathy in Forensic - Used to support a case’s transfer from youth to adult court, to contribute to dangerous offender hearings, to help determine parole eligibility and assess mental state at the time of offence hearing Psychopathy and violence - Traits that are compatible with criminal lifestyle and a lack of concern for social norms
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