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Chapter 13

Chapter 13.odt

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2600
Professor
Elizabeth Nisbet

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Description
Personality ReviewChapter 13 Emotion and PersonalityFebruary 20 2012Emotions Can be defined in 3 components 1 emotions have distinct subjective feelings or affects associated with them 2 emotions are accompanied by bodily changes mostly in the nervous system and these produce associated changes in breathing heart rate muscle tension blood chemistry and facial and body expressions 3 emotions are accompanied by distinct action tendencies or increases in the probabilities of certain behaviours Action Tendencies Increase in the probabilities of certain behaviours that accompany emotions The activity or action tendency associated with fear for example is to flee or to flight Functional Analysis In the expressions of the emotion in the man and animal Charles Darwin proposed a functional analysis of emotions and emotions expressions focusing on the why of emotions and expressions Darwin concluded that emotional expressions communicate information from one animal to another about what is likely to happen For instance a dog baring his teeth growling and bristling the fur on its back is communicating to others that he is likely to attack If others recognize the dogs communication they may choose to back away to safety Issues in Emotion Research Emotional State Transitory states that depend more on the situation or circumstances a person is in than on the specific person Emotions as states have a specific cause and that cause is typically outside of the person something happens in the environment Example of emotional state is that a man is angry because he was unfairly treated Emotional Traits Stable personality that are primarily characterized by specific emotions For example the trait of neuroticism is primarily characterized by the emotions of anxiety and worry Pattern of emotional experiences is stable over time and characteristic for each personEmotional research can be divided into 2 camps based on the answers to the following question what is the best way to think about emotions Categorical Approach Suggests emotions are best thought of as a small number of primary and distinct emotions anger joy sadness Another view point suggests that emotions are a broad dimensions of experience pleasant and unpleasant Primary emotions are thought to be the irreducible set of emotions combinations of which result in the huge variety of experienced emotionsTable 131 Page 401 Provides a selection of theorists and the primary emotions Ekman requires that a primary emotion have a distinct facial expression that is recognized across cultures Izard suggests that the primary emotions are distinguished by their unique motivational properties motivation to take specific actionsDimensional Approach Researchers gather data by having subjects rate themselves on a wide variety of emotions then apply statistical techniques to identify the basic dimensions unerlying the ratings Almost all the studies show that subjects categorize emotions using just two primary dimensions how pleasant or unpleasant the emotion is and how high or low on arousal the emotion is Dimensional approach to emotion refers more to how people experience their emotions than to how you think about their emotions Content Versus Style of Emotional LifeDistinction between the content of a persons emotional life and the style with which that person
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