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PSYC 2600 (51)
Chapter 16&17

Personality Chapter 16 & 17.odt

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Carleton University
PSYC 2600
Elizabeth Nisbet

Chapter 16Sex GenderPersonality Sex Differences In Personality Sex differences average differences between men and women in personality or behaviorThe definition of gender or social interpretations of what it means to be a man or a woman can change over time Gender stereotypes beliefs about how men and women differ or are supposed to differ in contrast to what the actual differences areTemperament in childrenThe question of sex differences in temperament is arguably one of the most fundamental questions in gender differences research in the areas of personality and social behavior Temperament reflects biologically based emotional and behavioral consistencies that appear early in life and predict patterns and outcomes in numerous other domainsInhibitory control refers to the ability to control inappropriate responses or behaviorsPerceptual sensitivity refers to the ability to detect subtle stimuli from the environmentgirls on average more sensitive then boys Inhibitory control is related to the later development of the personality trait of conscientiousness Surgency a cluster including approach behavior high activity and impulsivity showed a sex difference with boys scoring higher then girls Combination of low inhibitory control and high surgency may account for another reliable gender difference a difference in the domain of physical aggression boys more physically aggressiveGirls and boys show virtually no difference in a variable called negative affectivity which includes components such as anger difficultly amount of distress and sadness Exception to this is fearfulness girls tend to be more fearful then boysIn summary girls show more inhibitory control and boys show higher levels of surgency Very little evidence that girls are more emotional than boys during the age of 313FiveFactor ModelExtraversionWomen score slightly higher in gregariousness then me d015Men score very slightly higher on activity level d009Men score moderately higher in assertiveness then women d050Men place a greater importance on the value of power than do women value social status and dominanceAgreeablenessWomen score higher then men on agreeableness 2 facets of agreeableness trust the proclivity to cooperate with others giving others the benefit of the doubt and viewing ones fellow human beings as basically good at heart and Tendermindedness having empathy for others and being sympathetic with those who are downtroddenWomen are more trusting d025 and more tenderminded then men 097 Women smile more than men d60 but this may reflect submissiveness and low status rather than agreeablenessAggressiveness falls at the opposite end of agreeableness Men are more physically aggressive then women Men commit 90 of all homicides and most of the victims are other men After age 50 violent crimes of all sorts start to decline and men and women become much more similar to each other in terms of criminal aggressiveness
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