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Chapter 3

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PSYC 2700
Chris Herdman

Lecture 2 Chapter 3: sensory memory I. Multi-store model Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) - 3 memory (information processing structures): • Sensory memory (registers) • Short-term store • Long-term store - How to differentiate the stores: • Encoding • Duration • Capacity • Type of code(s) II. Basics of visual perception Sensation - Reception of stimulation from environment - Initial encoding into nervous system Perception - Process of interpreting sensory information Sensory structure (Fig 3.1, p.77) - Light waves projected onto retina • Rods, cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells  Rods/cones back layer of neurons  First to be stimulated by light waves  Bipolar cells connect rods and cones to ganglion cells  1st to be stimulated by light waves • Neural firing pattern from rod/cones to bipolar cells, and then to ganglion cells  Axons of ganglion cells form bundle called optic nerve  Nerve projects back to send neural message to visual cortex in occipital lobe Compression - Only fraction of light waves reaches retina - 120M rods, 7M cones, only 1M ganglion • Some cones have own bipolar • But many rods converge onto 1 bipolar • Convergence especially in 20+ degrees How is information gathered? - Series of fixation-saccade cycles - Saccades • Eyes move in jerky patterns • Not smooth continuous • Variable: 25ms – 175ms • Nothing “seen” during saccade - Fixations • Eyes pause to foveate and take in information • Fovea is where the highest resolution in eye is III. Sensory memory (aka sensory registers) - Neural activation in retina is brief • Terminates with external stimulation - But perception of event persists after stimulus is terminated • Implies a memory system - Vision iconic sensory memory - Audition echoic sensory memory - Etc.  1 per sense 1. Encoding - Quest: how does info accumulate in SM? - Answer: accumulates over time / not “all-or none” Mackworth (1963): t-scope - Conclude: information from the visual store formed in SM within 50ms 2. Duration of sensory
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