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Chapter 13

PSYC 2200 Chapter 13-Review.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 2800
Kim Hellemans

PSYC 2200 Chapter 13-Why Do We Sleep and Dream? Key Terms antonia: no tone; condition of complete muscle inability produced by the inhibition of motor neurons basic rest-activity cycle: recurring cycle of temporal packets, about 90 minute periods in humans, during which an animal's level of arousal waxes and wanes beta rhythm: fast brain-wave activity pattern associated with a waking EEG biological clock: neural system that times behaviour biorhythm: inherent timing mechanism that controls or initiates various biological processes cataplexity: form of narcolepsy linked to strong emotional stimulation in which an animal loses all muscle activity or tone, as if in REM sleep, while awake circadian rhythm: day-night rhythm delta rhythm: slow brain-wave activity pattern associated with deep sleep diurnal animal: organism this is active chiefly during daylight drug-dependency insomnia: condition resulting from continuous use of 'sleeping pills'; drug tolerance also results in deprivation of REM or NREM sleep leading the user to increased drug dosage entrainment: determination or modification of the period of a biorhythm free-running rhythm: rhythm of the body's own devising in the absence of all external cause hypnogogic hallucination: dreamlike event as the beginning of sleep or while a person is in a state of cataplexity insomnia: disorder of slow-wave sleep resulting in prolonged inability to sleep jet lag: fatigue and disorientation resulting from rapid travel through time zones and exposure to changed light-dark cycle light pollution: exposure to artificial light that changes activity patterns and so distrupts circadian rhythms locked-in syndrome: lower brainstem damage that results in a fully conscious, alert and responsive condition but the patient is quadriplegic and mute medical pontine reticular formation: nucleus in the pons participating in REM sleep melatonin: hormone secreted by the pineal gland during the dark phase of the day-night cycle; influences daily and seasonal biorhythms microsleep: brief period of sleep lasting a second or so narcolepsy: slow-wave sleep disorder in which a person uncontrollably falls asleep at inappropriate times NREM sleep: slow wave sleep associated with delta rhythms peribrachial area: cholinergic nucleus in the dorsal brainstem having a role in REM sleep behaviours; projects to medial pontine reticular period: time required to complete a cycle of activity place cell: hippocampal neuron maximally responsive to specific locations in the world REM sleep: fast brain-wave activity displayed by the neocortical EEG record during sleep reticular activating system: large reticulum (mixture of cell nuclei and nerve fibers) that runs through the center of the brainstem; associated with sleep-wake behaviour and behavioural arousal; often called reticular formation. retinohypothalamic pathway: neural route from a subset of cone receptors in the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus; allows light to entrain the rhythmic activity of the SNC sleep apnea: inability to breathe during sleep; person has to wake up to breathe sleep paralysis: inability to move during deep sleep owing to the brain's inhibition of motor neurons suprachiasmatic nucleus: main pacemaker of circadian rhythms located just above the optic chiasm torpor: inactive conedition resembling sleep but with a greater decline in body temperature Zeitgeber: environmental event that entrains biological rhythms: a "time giver" A Clock for All Seasons Origins of Biological Rhythms - Linked to the cycle of days and seasons produced by the Earth’s rotation around the sun - Animals living near the poles of the Earth are more affected by seasonal changes than animals living in equatorial regions - Human behavior is governed more by daily cycles than by seasonal cycles Biological Clocks - Jean Jacques d'Ortous, 1992 was first to recognize behaviour was not driven solely by external cues from the environment - Control comes from an animals endogenous Biological Clock ∙ organisms naturally selected for internal clocks would avoid being tricked by external cues that would lead them to display maladaptive behaviour Biological Rhythms Biological Rhythm Time Frame Example Circannual Rhythm yearly migratory cycles of birds Circadian Daily Human sleep-awake cycle Ultradian Less than one day Human eating cycle Infradian More than a day (less than 1 Human menstrual cycle year) Free Running Rhythms - Rhythm of the body’s own devising in the absence of all external cues ∙ Without input from external cues, our bodies have their own rhythms with periods of 25 to 27 hours (see Aschoff and Weber Experiment) ◦ Sleep-wake cycle shifts an hour or so everyday ∙ Animals expand and contract their sleep periods as the sleep-related lighting period expands or contracts (eg. nocturnal species and sparrow experiments) Neural Basis of the Biological Clock - Curt Richter, 1965 was first to attempt to locate biological clock in the brain ∙ Electrode experiments found that damage to the hypothalamus, specifically to the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN), causes animals to lose circadian rhythms ◦ still perform regular activities (eat, drink, sleep) but at haphazard times - SCN receives light information from the Retinohypothalamic pathway, which excites the SCN and entrains its rhythm - How this mechanism works is not yet fully understood, at least half a dozen genes and the proteins they make seem to produce the circadian rhythm of SCN cells in mammals - Endogenous rhythm is not learned Pacemaking - Circadian Timing System ∙ Light entrains the SCN ∙ pacemaker drives various 'slave' oscillators, each responsible for the rhythmic occurrence of one activity (eg sleeping) ∙ the signal that drives the oscillators may be by hormones, neurotransmitters or proteins - Cirannual Rhythms ∙ melatonin influences both daily and seasonal biorhythms ∙ example above is the changes in a hamsters melatonin levels as the seasons change for mating. This would increase or decrease sexual behaviour in order to facilitate or inhibit sexual mating. Sleep Stages and Dreaming Measuring How Long We Sleep - variations in sleeping times are norma
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