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Chapter 3

chapter 3 brain and behavior summary.docx

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PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

PSYC 2200 Chapter 3 Summary Genes are coded to make proteins They are located in the chromosomes of each cell and determine the kind of protein that particular cell will make Thus genes are blueprints for proteins with each gene containing the code for one proteinCells of the nervous systemNervous system composed of neurons and cells called glia Neurons are functional units that enable us to receive info process and act Glial cells bind them together providing support nutrients and protection About 100 billion neurons in human nervous system 10x as many glial cellsNeurons Acquire info from sensory receptors pass info to other neurons encode memories produce thoughts and emotions regulate many body processes breathing heartbeat sleep cycle tempControversy of what neurons really are between two scientists Camillo Golgi thought nervous sytem was composed of a network of interconnected fibers and information flowed around this nerve net and produced behaviourSantiago Cajal studied the brain systems of chick embryos and concluded that the nervous system is made up of discrete cells that start out as a simple structure and become complex with age When mature consist of cell body with branches protruding from itNeuron hypothesis Idea by Cajal that neurons are units of brain function universally accepted todaySome believe that special function assigned to single neuron Fernando Nottenbohm 1994 studied how birds produce song and proposed single neuron responsible for each note sungFor most behaviour however scientists think neurons work together in groups hundreds to thousands to produce behaviourso loss of one or two not importantNeurons are active producing new dendrite branches and losing old ones Seem to be continuously growing shrinking and changing shape For some neurons physical changes result from coding and storing our experiences and memories Cells genetic blueprints can be reopened allowing neuron to alter structure and function by producing new proteins In few locations in the nervous sytem ongoing production of new neurons takes place through life But most neurons with you for life never replaced If spinal cord damaged neurons lost functional recovery is poorStructure and functionCell bodysomaCore region of cell containing nucleus and other organelles for making proteinsDendrite Branch of neuron that consists of an extension of the cell membrane increasing area of cell Axon Root or single fiber of neuron that carries messages to other neurons Neuron has single axon which carries messages to other neurons and begins at one end of the cell body at an expansion called the axon hillock junction of soma and axon where action potential begins Axon collaterals are branches of an axon can have one or many Lower tip of axon can divide into smaller branches called teleodendria Endfootterminal button is the knob at the tip of an axon teleodendrion that conveys info to
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