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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Part 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2800
Professor
Amanda Helleman

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Chapter 10 Part 1 How do we Hear Speak and Make Music both language and music are universal among humans all cultures create and enjoy music oral language of every known culture follows similar basic structural rules music and language improves parenting those who can communicate their intentions to one another and to their children presumably are better parents humans capacities for language and music are linked conceptually because both are based on sound Sound Waves The Stimulus for Audition Sound waveundulating displacement of molecules caused by changing pressurewhat we experience as sound is a creation of the brain as is what it seeswithout a brain sound and sight do not exist Physical Properties of Sound Waves light is electromagnetic energy that we see sound is mechanical energy that we hear sound wave energy produced by the displacement of air molecules has 3 physical properties Frequency and Pitch perceptionthe rate at which sound waves vibrate is measured as cycles per second or hertz Hz Amplitude and perception of loudnessintensity of sound is usually measured in decibels dB Complexity and timbre perception of sound qualitymost sounds are a mixture of frequenciesa sounds complexity determines its timbre allowing us to distinguish for example a trombone from a violin playing at the same note view drawings of the above properties on pg 320 SoundWave Frequency Frequencynumber of cycles that a wave completes in a given amount of time Hertz HzMeasure of frequency repetition rate of a sound wave 1 hertz is equal to 1 cycle per second sounds that we perceive as low pitch have slower wave frequencies fewer cycles per secondsounds we perceive as high pitch have faster wave frequenciesjust as with light we can only perceive sound waves in a limited range of frequencies chart depicting our range along with other animals found on pg 321 characteristics at the extremes of these frequencies allow marine mammals to use them in different ways very low frequency sound waves travel long distances in water whales produce them as a form of underwater communication over miles of distancevery high frequency sound waves create echoes and form the basis of sonar dolphins produce them in bursts listening for the echoes that bounce back from objects and help them navigate and locate preymiddle C on the piano has a frequency of 264 hertz perfect or absolute pitch allows someone to be able to identify the notes they hearthis ability runs in families suggesting a genetic influencecan also develop through early musical trainingSoundWave AmplitudeSWs vary not only in frequency but also in strength or amplitude causing differences in perceived intensity or loudness Amplitudeintensity of a stimulus in audition roughly equivalent to loudness graphed by increasing the height of a sound wave the magnitude of change in airmolecule density increased compression of air molecules intensifies the energy in a sound wave which amps the soundmakes it louderdifferences in amplitude are graphed by increasing the height of a sound wave amplitude usually measured in decibels dBmeasure of the strength of a sound relative to the threshold of human hearing as a standard 9 pegged at 0 decibels normal speech sounds register around 40 dBsounds registering beyond 70 dB are considered loud those less than 20 dB are considered quiet sounds louder than 100dB are likely to damage our hearing most heavy metal concerts register around 120 and even as high as 135dB rock musicians often have a significant loss of sensitivity to sound waves hearing loss is also common among symphony musiciansSoundWave Complexity
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