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Carleton University
PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

Drugs and HormonesChapter 8Neural Basis of Drug CravingsDrug cravings are formed in the Mesolimbic Dopamine systemAxons of neurons in the midbrain ventral tegmental area VTA project to the nucleus accumbens frontal cortex and hippocampusMost addictive drugs simulate this release of Mesolimbic dopamine DA into the systemEletrical stimulation of the VTA also produces the same feeling in cocaine addicted ratsPsychopharmacologythe study of how drugs affect the nervous system and behaviorPsychoactive Drugs substances that act to alter mood thought or behavior and are used to manage neuropsychological illnessDrug Routes into the Nervous SystemThe way the drug enters and passes through the body is called its route of administration Different routes of administration of different drugsInjection into brain acts quicklyfewest obstaclesfastest actingTaking drugs orally safesteasiestbut most complex route for drugs o Can either pass from stomach into bloodstream o Or pass from intestines to bloodstreamInjection into muscles slower because of more barriersInhalation few barriersInjection into bloodstream fewest barriersbut must be hydrophilicAbsorption through patches on the skinBloodBrain BarrierIn the brain astrocytes form the bloodbrain barrier by covering the junctions in the capillariesThree BloodBarrier free areas that allow the entry of the following toxic substancesPituitary gland chemicals that influence pituitary hormonesPineal Gland chemicals that affect daynight cyclesArea Postrema toxic substances that induce vomitingOnly some drugs effectively get into the CNS the most effective ones are small molecules weak acids water and fat soluble potent in small amounts and not easily degradedHow the body eliminates drugsin urine feces sweat breast milk and exhaled air
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