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Chapter 13

chapter 13 summary.doc

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Carleton University
PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

Chapter 13 Summary Why do we Sleep and DreamOrigins of Biological Rhythms Biorythm Inherent timing mechanism that controls or initiates various biological processesLinked to the cycle of days and seasons produced by the Earths rotation around the sunAnimals living near the poles of the Earth are more affected by seasonal changes than animals living in equatorial regionsHuman behavior is governed more by daily cycles than by seasonal cyclesBehavior is not simply driven by external cues from the environmentRhythms are endogenous control comes from withinBiological ClockNeural system that times behaviorAllows animals to anticipate events before they happen period Time required to complete a cycle of activityCircannual Rhythm Yearly eg migratory cycles of birdsInfranual Rhythm Less than a year eg human menstrual cycleCircadian Rhythm Daily eg human sleep cycleUltraniumRhythm Less than a day eg eating cycleFree Running Rhythms Rhythm of the bodys own devising in the absence of all external cues Without input from external cues our bodies have their own rhythms with periods of 25 to 27 hours Sleepwake cycle shifts an hour or so everydayAnimals expandand contract their sleep periods as the sleeprelated lighting period expands or contractsZeitgebers Environmental event that entrains biological rhythms a time giverExample Entrainment Determination or modification of the period of a biorhythmJet Lag Fatigue and disorientation from rapid travel through time zones an exposure to a changed lightdark cycleNeural Basis of the Biological Clock Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN Main pacemaker of circadian rhythms located just above the optic chiasmRetinohypothalamic Pathway Neural route from a subset of cone receptors in the retina
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