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Chapter 12

Chapter 12April 10.docx

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PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

Chapter 12April 10 2012 What Causes Emotional and Motivated Behavior Knowing that the brain makes emotional experience realmore than mere metaphors of hurt or pain how do we incorporate our thoughts and reasons for behaving as we doClearly our subjective feelings and thoughts influence our actions The cognitive interpretation of subjective feelings are emotions ANGER FEAR SADNESS JEALOUSY EMBARASSMENT JOYbut these feelings can operate outside our immediate awareness as wellWe focus both on emotions and on the underlying reasons for motivation behavior that seems purposeful and goaldirectedMotivated behaviors include both regulatory behaviors such as eating which are essential for survival and nonregulatory behaviors such as curiosity which are not required to meet the basic needs of an animalReview Identifying the Causes of Behavior Free will is not an adequate explanation of behavior because the nervous sytem can produce behaviors over which an organism has neither choice nor control Researchers have investigated causes f behavior including the apparent need of the brain to maintain at least a minimum level of stimulation and the behavioral control exerted by the nervous system The earlier idea that internal energizing drives build up and are released in behavior gave way to a more powerful explanation behavior results from the activity of hormonal and neural circuits inside the brain that control how we think act and feel Is it free willPossible explanation brain needs stimulationSensory DeprivationSubject is allowed only restricted sensory inputLow tolerance for deprivation and may even display hallucinations Hebb and Heron 1950sAfter about 4 to 8 hours subjects became quite distressed few subjects lasted more than 24 hoursBrain has an inherent need for stimulation one reason that we engage in behavior is to stimulate the brainSimilar studies with rhesus monkeysDrives and BehaviorThe cats seemingly unremarkable actions provide three clues to the causes of behavior1 The cats response to a particular stimulus I s not the same each time Both the food and the toy mouse elicit behavior on some occasions but not on others 2 The strength of the cats behaviors varies For instance the mouse toy stimulates vigorous behavior at one time and none at another 3 The cat engages not only in behaviors that satisfy obvious biological needs eating drinking sleeping but also in behaviors that are not so obviously necessary playing affection seeking exploringThe flush model also assumes separate stores of energy for different behaviors For instance cats have a drive to play and they have a drive to kill Engaging in one of these behaviors does not reduce the energy stored for the other That is presumably why a cat may play with a mouse that it has caught for many minutes before finally killing it The cat will pounce and attack the mouse repeatedly until all its energy for play is used up and only then will it proceed to the next driveinduced behavior feedingThe flush model can be applied to many different behaviors and makes some intuitive sense We do seem to behave as if there were energy reserves for various behaviors Males of most mammalian species for instance typically enter a refractory period subsequent to sexual intercourse when they no longer have interest in sex Later the interest or energy returns It is as though a pentup sexual urge once satisfied vanishes for a time awaiting a new energy buildup Drive Hypothetical state of arousal that motivates an organism to engage in a particular behaviorDrive theories of motivation assume the brain is storing energy for behavior Flush modelOnce a behavior is started it will continue until all the energy in its reservoir is goneThere are separate stores of energy for different behaviors
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