PSYC 2800 Chapter Notes -Middle Temporal Gyrus, Eyeblink Conditioning, Inferior Temporal Gyrus

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16 Apr 2012
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Connecting Learning and Memory
Learning
A change in an organism’s behavior as a result of experience
So it is not just sitting in a classroom and taking notes and learning that way, it is also playing piano, its
meeting someone for first time and learning their name and face
Any long lasting permanent change
Memory
The ability to recall or recognize previous experience
So you might learn someone’s name at a party, and then wake up next morning and not
remember their name
Memory implies a mental representation of the previous experience
Memory Trace
A mental representation of a previous experience
Presumed to correspond to some physical change in the brain
Our brain has neuroplasticity which means it is ever changing, it also means that we are constantly learning and storing
information. We can look at neuronal changes in cells exposed to specific sensory experiences.
We can also look at neural changes that mediate brain plasticity ie: recovery from brain injury, addiction, learning
disabilities.
Pavlovian Conditioning
Learning procedure whereby a neutral stimulus (such as a tone, flashing light, odor; usualy a sensory experience)
comes to elicit a response because of its repeated pairing with some event (such as the delivery of food); also
called classical conditioning or respondent conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (neutral) : Stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous
conditioning
e.g, meat powder, juicy burger, doughnut
unconditioned response : unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous
conditioning
e.g., salivation, heart rate change
conditioned stimulus: Previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke
a conditioned response
e.g., tone, visual image
marketing companies are aware of these conditioning so that when we see their logo we associate that
with their food and the craving for that food.
Conditioned response (CR): Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous
conditioning
e.g., salivation, craving coffee, tummy rumbling
talking to teacher - CS then becomes CR once paired with cookie over time = happy
cookie -UCS = UR (happy)
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Eye-Blink Conditioning
Commonly used experimental technique in which subjects learn to pair
a formerly neutral stimulus to a defensive eye-blinking response
Overtime just once tone is heard you will close your eyes in anticipation
of puff of air.
Fear Conditioning
Learned association, a conditioned emotional response, between a neutral
stimulus and a noxious event such as a shock
Metal floor, play a tone with the foot shock, the unconditioned response is to jump (startle) once shocked, over
continuous pairings the animal will freeze (CR) to the sound of the tone itself, (UC) startle (jump). They never
associate the tone with the foot shock, it is a very specific emotional memory that cannot occur.
Thought to involve the amygdala
Instrumental Conditioning (Operant Conditioning)
Learning procedure in which the consequences (such
as obtaining a reward) of a particular behavior (such
as pressing a bar) increase or decrease the probability
of the behavior occurring again; operant conditioning
Thorndike’s puzzle box: A hungry cat will eventually
learn that pressing a lever will open the door so that it
can reach some food
Would very quickly learn to escape, but if placed
back in the box it would take a few trials to
figure it out again
Principles of Reinforcement
Fundamental Principle: Organisms tend to repeat responses that are followed by favourable consequences
We will go looking for say “suschi” we’ll go to our favorite suschi place to get the best suschi, we won’t
eat bad suschi when we know there is a better one out there that gives us a more positive feeling.
These behaviours are reinforced :
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When an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response we say
that that behaviour has been reinforced
Is a difference between reward and reinforcement
Reward is a positive and pleasurable experience
Reinforcement can be both positive or negative
Positive reinforcement
Response followed by rewarding stimulus
E.g., tasty meal, paycheque, good grades
If we study really hard and get an ‘A’ then we are more likely to study as hard in the
future
If we don’t study and get an ‘F’ then something needs to change
Negative reinforcement
Response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus
E.g., press on lever to remove shock, *taking pain medications to relieve headache*,
drug addiction, best way to cure a hangover is to drink alcohol (hard core addicts, promotes
addictive cycle because they take the drug to relieve the withdrawal initially before being
“addicted” but then they begin to take the drug even before the withdrawal sets in (to avoid
withdrawal)
TWO categories of Memory
implicit (procedural) Memory
Unconscious memory: subjects can demonstrate knowledge, such as a skill, conditioned response, or
recalling events on prompting, but cannot explicitly retrieve the information
Ie: Knowledge for ‘how’: how to ride a bike, tie show laces, drive a car
Explicit (declarative) Memory
Conscious memory: subjects can retrieve an item and indicate that they know that the retrieved item is
the correct item :Ie: What is your birthday, how many courses have you taken this year, who won the
game last night.
Encoding Memories
TERM FOR CONSCIOUS MEMORY TERM FOR UNCONSCIOUS MEMORY
EXPLICIT IMPLICIT
DECLARATIVE NONDECLARATIVE
FACT SKILL
MEMORY HABIT
KNOWING THAT KNOWING HOW
LOCALE TAXON
CONSCIOUS RECOLLECTION SKILLS
ELABORATION INTEGRATION
MEMORY WITH RECORD MEMORY WITHOUT RECORD
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL PERCEPTUAL
REPRESENTATIONAL DISPOSITIONAL
EPISODIC PROCEDURAL
SEMANTIC NONASSOCIATIVE
WORKING REFERENCE
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