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PSYC 3402 (29)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Summary.

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PSYC 3402
Ralph Serin

Chapter 8 Summary: Family Violence Introduction  In some cases children that experience abuse become abusers themselves  Victims of abuse initially blame themselves  Most prevalent form of violence in society  Distinct from other types of violence since the victims and perpetrators know eachother and there is often an ongoing relationship Background Issues  No consensus exists for a definition but most current definition of family violence include non-violent abuse/emotional abuse  Prevalence: the total number of people who have experienced violence in a certain time period  Incidence: the number of new cases reported at a given time period Types of Violence  Neglect is the most common form of abuse in both children and elderly  Psychologocial abuse is often described by individuals as one of the most harmful types of abuse  Financial abuse is most often studied in context of elder abuse Family Violence  Ecological model : provides a useful way to conceptualize the interaction among factors related to violence  Model focuses on individual, relationship, community, and societal factors  At individual level, biological, personal history characteristics of the abuser and victims need to be considered (age, substance abuse)  Relationship level- peers, partners and family members  The community level – schools and neighbourhoods (poverty, social isolation)  Societal level – social norms, cultural beliefs and police Partner Violence  Intimate partner violence ( spousal violence) – between intimate partners who are living together  Varying in types and severity – physical, sexual, financial, emotional  51% of woman have reported atleast one incident of abuse  Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS)- to assess how a person and their partner resolve conflict.  Measures psychological, physical, and sexual violence  Woman reported experiences of severe form of violence  woma  Woman are more likely to report abuse (36%)  Physical and sexual violence were experienced more often by woman in rural areas Triggers for violence  Not obeying or arguing with the man  Not having food ready on time  Not caring adequately for the children/ home  Questioning the man about money or girlfriends  Going somewhere without the man’s permission  Refusing sex Theories of Intimate Violence  Patriarchal Theory – degree of patriarchal attitude was positively correlated with rate of intimate violence  States with much higher levels of patriarchal attitude had much higher levels of spousal abuse  Additional variables are necessary to account for imtimate violence (family, community, individual characteristics)  Social Learning Theory – three major elements (origins, instigators, regulators)  How individuals acquire new behaviour – observational learning Male Victims  Most frequently occurring types of violence was mutual and mild violence followed by mutual severe violence.  Slightly higher percentage of woman engage in minor violence and that equal rates of serious violence occur for men  When the female partner was injured, the male was charged in 91% of the cases  When male was injured, only 61% of female charged Male Batterers  Family only batterer Characteristics: lowest levels of intimate violence, infrequently violent outside the home, does not show much psychopathy, few risk factors  Anti-social batterer: moderate to high levels of violence, frequently violent outside the house, substance abuse problem, impulsive  Borderline Batterer: violence on female partner, high rate of mood disorder, serve levels of violence, instable, jealous Victims Response to Abuse  Factors that keep an abuse woman in a relationship: fear of retribution, lack of economical support, concern for children, emotional dependency, hope that men will change  Partner homicide occurs when woman try to le
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