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Chapter 3

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PSYC 3402
Ralph Serin

Chapter 3 Theories of Crime Learning and Environment Psychodynamic Theories Sigmund Freud unconscious mind defence mechanisms and various therapeutic techniquesHumans are thought to be inherently antisocial driven by pleasureseeking and destructive impulsesCrime generally occurs when these often unconscious impulses are not adequately controlledReferences to inner drives traumatic situations and protecting defences are commonplace in psychodynamic explanations of crimeIDpresent at birth and represents unconscious primitive and instinctual desiresGoverned by pleasure principle it seeks to immediate pleasure with little consideration of the undesirable consequences that may result if an impulse is acted uponEgoattempts to mediate between ones primal needs and societys demands Guided by reality principle its development coincides with the emergence of realityoriented thinking and it allows the id to function in socially acceptable ways by suppressing the ids impulses until appropriate situations ariseGuided by the superegoSuperegorepresents the internalization of group standards typically conveyed to the child through parental care and discipline and it acts as a moral regulator tasked with the job of overseeing the choices we makeTwo subsystems conscience and egoidealFreud and his five psychosexual stages table on page 72Argued that difficulties resolving conflicts within any given stage can potentially result in problems with personality development which would be apparent in ones behaviour The individual who commits crime as a result of a harsh superego is sometimes referred to as a neurotic criminal Deviant identificationidentification with a deviant role model when someones parents are deviant and they follow in their footstepsThe superego plays an important role in the development of crime but does not provide information about the actual causes of crime Theory of maternal deprivation Bowlbyhow juvenile delinquency developsThought that for children to develop normally they needed constant maternal care otherwise many harmful and potentially irreversible longterm effects may occur and therefore exhibit antisocial patterns of behaviourThis theory however did not stand to be trueGlueck and Glueck also touched based on this but concentrated more on mental conflict tensions between repressed and forgotten emotional experiences and more recent experiences and divergent instinctual energy propulsions in typical psychoanalytic fashionProposed a tentative causal formula that they figured could be used to predict who would become engaged in juvenile delinquency by drawing on their physical temperamental attitudinal psychological and sociocultural data they could make accurate predictions from a very young age about the likelihood of children getting involved in crime
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