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Chapter 5

PSYC 3604 Chapter 5: Abnormal Psychology ch 5

7 Pages

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PSYC 3604
Chris Motz

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Abnormal Psychology Class 3 January 25 2016 Operant conditioning - Thorndikes law of effect - Response’s that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated - Responses that lead to unsatisfying consequences are less likely to be repeated - Focus on learning that happens when we pair environmental stimuli with our own behaviour - The likelihood of a response is increased or decreased by virtue of its consequences - Appetitive stimulus: any stimulus that is good or desirable - Aversive stimulus: any stimulus that is unpleasant or painful Reinforcement, punishment, and extinction • Reinforcement – increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated – Positive Reinforcement – a response is regularly and reliably followed by the onset of an appetitive stimulus – Negative Reinforcement – a response is regularly and reliably followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus • Punishment – decreases the likelihood that a response will be repeated – Punishment – a response is followed by the onset of an aversive stimulus (a punisher) – Response Cost – a response is followed by the removal of an appetitive stimulus • Extinction – The elimination of a response by withdrawing whatever reinforcer was maintaining it - Behaviour modification uses extinction - You want the stimuli to not be what elicits behaviour - Organism will do behaviour and nothing will happen • Generalization – An organism responds to stimuli that are similar to a previously learned stimulus • Discrimination Learning – Learning to distinguish among similar stimuli and to respond only to the appropriate one. • Shaping – reinforcing any response that successfully approximates the desired response. Creating complex or novel behaviours - Early treatments for children with autism showed promise using shaping and discrimination training - Used for children with more sever types of autism - Teaching them to imitate others verbally The cognitive paradigm Cognitive Perspective: - Focuses on abnormal behaviour as the product of disordered mental functioning - Many psychological disorders involve cognitive disturbances - Cognitive disturbances may be the cause of some disorders Aaron Beck - Famous for his work on depression and the development of the beck depression inventory - Beck thought that disorders are associated with 3 specific disordered thinking. 1) Magnification 2) overgeneralization 3) selective abstraction - Magnification: exaggerating the meaning of something. (one midterm on first year will ruin your entire career in psych) - Overgeneralization: fail one English exam and say you’re bad at every class - Selective abstraction: focusing on one specific thing and using that as a guide for everything else and ignoring all other information Cognitive appraisal • Cognitive Appraisal – evaluating the stimulus and/or interpreting the situation • Everyone evaluates/interprets all situations – For most people, most appraisals are adaptive • But some appraisals may be maladaptive – For some people, appraisals become extreme – From a cognitive theorist perspective – the extreme thoughts/beliefs/feelings of people with psychological disorders are simply exaggerations of the thoughts/ feelings/disorders of people without disorders • Attributions: – Events happen – We attempt to explain “why” the event happened (search for a cause) – We come up with a “causal ascription” (an explanation of why the event occurred) – Causal Ascriptions can be classified according to several dimensions • Internal-External, Global-Specific, Stable-Unstable • Causal Ascriptions are related to outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies Locus of causality: where is the location of control - Ascriptions have really big consequences for how we think about the actor (us or another person) Martin Seligman: learned helplessness - When the dog was previously put in an uncomfortable situation, they would learn that there is no way out - Can people learn this too? - When a person faces uncontrollable stress in their lives, they are at risk of becoming depressed - Not everyone responds to stress by becoming depressed - Only if the individual decides or thinks that they can’t do anything about the stress in their lives - The individual makes an attribution that they have no control and this leads to feeling depressed - Specifically it is a pessimistic explanatory style (its internal (my fault), stable (never change), and global (everything will be bad like this). Cognitive Vulnerability stress model - Identifying people who are at risk of developing a disorder based on their cognitive style Hankin Hopelessness theory - Hopelessness theory predicts that a negative inferential style about : ▪ Cause (the tendency to attribute negative events to stable and global causes, also called a negative attributional style), ▪ Consequences (the propensity to catastrophize the consequences of negative events) , ▪ And the self (the likelihood of finding negative self-meaning and implications for one’s self following the occurrence of negative events) - It’s hypothesized to interact with negative life events to contribute to prospective increases in depressive symptoms - Hankin 2008 : o Assessed 350 youth (ages 11-17) in four waves over five months o Cognitive style, anxious and depressive symptoms, mood state, general internalizing (emotional) and externalizing (conduct, hyperactivity-inattention) emotional and behavioural problems, and life events o Results using hierarchical linear modeling show that a negative inferential style interacted with negative events to predict prospective symptoms depression Albert Ellis - Irrational beliefs: maladaptive behaviour is due to the individual’s response to events. Responses are based on irrational beliefs about the world - A belief is irrational if it distorts reality, is illogical, prevents you from reaching your goals, leads to unhealthy emotions, leads to self defeating behaviours - 3 major musts of irrational beliefs: 1) I must do well and win the approval of others or else I am no good 2) Other people must do the right thing or else they are no good a
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