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SOCI 2450 (33)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 victimization.docx

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Carleton University
SOCI 2450
Darryl Davies

Chapter 4 Dynamics of victimization - Sellin and Wolfgang introduced the typology of victims based on victim-offender relationships: 1. Primary victimization: an individual falls victim to a crime 2. Secondary victimization: an impersonal agency such as business is victimized 3. Tertiary victimization: the government or public order is offended, perhaps through regulatory violations 4. Mutual victimization: the participants in an offense (such as drug sales, gambling or prostitution) willingly involve themselves 5. No victimization: a category reserved for offenses committed by youth that could not be committed by an adult, such as the buying of cigarettes by an underage person - Lifestyle model: holds that the likelihood that an individual will suffer a personal victimization depends heavily on the concept of lifestyle - Cohen • Routine activity approach: holds that occurrences of personal victimization are dependent upon the “routine” or “daily activity” of people and are the outcome of three elements:  The motivated offender  Asuitable target  Absence of a capable guardian • Opportunity model: contends that the risk of criminal victimization depends largely on people’s lifestyle and daily activities that bring them and their property into direct contact with potential offenders in the absence of capable guardians - Fattah • Opportunities that are closely linked to the characteristics of potential targets and to the activities and behavior of these targets • Risk factors and particularly those related to socio-demographic realities such as age, sex, area of residence, etc... • Motivated offenders who do not choose their victims/targets at random but select them according to specific criteria • Exposure of the victim to potential offenders and to high-risk situations that increase the risk of criminal victimization • Associations between offenders and victims so that those who are in close personal, professional, or social contact with offenders run a greater risk of being victimized • Dangerous times and dangerous places, which include evenings, weekends, and places of public entertainment • Dangerous behaviors such as provocation, which increases the risk especially of violent victimization, and other behaviors, such as negligence and carelessness, which enhance chances of property victimization • High-risk activities, which increase the potential for victimization and can include deviant and illegal activities • Defensive/avoidance behaviors, which tend to contribute to the reduction in the risk of victimization; those who take precautions are less likely to be victimized than those who are risk-takers • Structural/cultural proneness of people, which means that those who are powerless and culturally stigmatized and marginalized are more likely to be criminally victimized - Risk of victimization is greatest for: • Those who are 15-24 • Students • Single • Occupy the lowest household income categories • Live in urban settings • Participate in activities outside the home more than 30 times a month Realities of being a victim - Victim of crime model (stages involved in victimization) developed by Bard: • Stage of impact and disorganization: during and immediately following the criminal event • Recoil: during which the victim formulates psychological defenses and deals with conflicting emotions of guilt, anger, acceptance, and desire for revenge • Reorganizational stage: during which the victim puts his life back together and gets on with daily living in a more or less normal fashion Ahistorical overview of victim responses to crime - King’s peace • After King’s peace, society’s moral responsibility of making the victim “whole again” was forgotten, and vic
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