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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 (1).docx

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SOCI 2450
Darryl Davies

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Hannah Stewart Chapter 4 SOCI2450 Winter 2012 Chapter 4 Victimology: The Study of the Victim The Dynamics of Victimization - Victimology: the study of victims and their contributory role, if any, in the criminal event. - Victim-Proneness: the degree of an individual’s likelihood of victimization. - Hans von Hentig: “In a sense, the victim shapes and moulds the criminal... the animals which devour and those that are devoured complement each other... To know one we must be acquainted with the complementary partner” o Created classificatory scheme of victims based on biological or situational weaknesses (ex. Physically, socially, psychologically or environmentally based) that put victim at a disadvantage, constituting “easy prey” for the criminal predator o “Victim Areas”, parts of country with tourists or people with money are drawn to, also attract criminals who offend against them o Did not do any of his own empirical research but based on everyday information and statistics, helped make “the victim” a major topic in criminological research (1950s-60s) - Benjamin Mendelsohn: typology based on degree of guilt that victim brought to criminal event. o Penal Couple: a term that describes the relationship between victim and criminal. Also, the two individuals most involved with the criminal act- the offender and the cixtim. o Victimal- term to describe the criminal’s victim counterpart o Victimity- signified the opposite of criminality - Henry Ellenberger: Victimogenesis: the contributory background of a victim as a result of which he or she becomes prone to victimization. o Victims undergo process of socialization -> less caution, more association with possible offenders, increased likelihood frequenting places with criminal activity which all heighten the risk of criminal victimization. - Thorsten Sellin and Marvin E. Wolfgang: typology of victims based on victim-offender relationships 1. Primary Victimization: individual falls victim to crime 2. Secondary Victimization: impersonal agency (ex. Business) is victimized 3. Tertiary Victimization: government or public order is offended (ex. Regulatory violations) 4. Mutual Victimization: participants in offence willingly involve themselves (ex. Prostitution, gambling, drug sales) 5. No Victimization: offences committed by youth that could not be committed by an adult (ex. Underage drinking, buying cigarettes) - Canadian Urban Victimization Survey (1982)-> Experts try to explain why some groups of individuals, locations were especially prone to victimization, new theories to offer explanation on variation in rates, repetition of victimization. - Michael Hindelang, Michael R. Gottfredson, James Garofalo: Lifestyle Model: holds that the likelihood that an individual will suffer a personal victimization depends heavily on the concept of lifestyles. o Lifestyles influences by the roles played by people, position one occupies in social structure, choices to process options based on life experiences. - Lawrence E. Cohen and Marcus Felson: Routine Activity Approach: holds that occurrences of personal victimization are dependent upon the “routine” or “daily activities” of people and are Hannah Stewart Chapter 4 SOCI2450 Winter 2012 the outcome of three elements: the motivated offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian. o Opportunity, proximity/exposure, facilitating factors o Lawrence E. Cohen, J. R. Kluegel and Kenneth Land: Opportunity Model: contends that the risk of criminal victimization depends largely on people’s lifestyle and daily activities that bring them and their property into direct contact with potential offenders in the absence of a capable guardian. - Ezzat Fattah: integrate lifestyle/opportunity theories into a comprehensive scheme, made of ten different elements: 1. Opportunities closely linked to characteristics of potential targets and their behaviour and activities. 2. Risk Factors, particularly related to socio-demographic realities (age, sex, residence, etc) 3. Motivated Offenders do not select victims at random but rather target based on specific criteria 4. Exposure of victims to potential offenders, high risk situations which may increase criminal victimization risk 5. Associations between offenders and victims; closer in professional, personal or social contact with offenders -> greater risk 6. Dangerous Times and Dangerous Places- evenings, weekends, places of public entertainment 7. Dangerous Behaviours increase risk of violent victimization (ex. Provocation) or property victimization (ex. Negligence, carelessness) 8. High-Risk Activities increase potential for victimization (ex. Deviant and illegal activities) 9. Defensive/Avoidance Behaviours contribute to reduction in victimization; take precautions -> less likely victimized 10. Structural/Cultural Proneness of people; powerless, stigmatized, marginalized are more likely to be criminally victimized - Risk of vicitimization greatest for people between 15-24 years old, single, main activity classified as “student”, occupy lowest household income categories, urban setting, participate in evening activities outside of home 30+ times per month Realities of Being a Victim - Bard and Sangrey: “Victims of Crime Model”, three stages in any victimization 1. Stage of impact and disorganization right after criminal event 2. Recoil stage, victim formulates psychological defences, deals with conflicting emotions (guilt, anger, acceptance, desire for revenge) 3. Reorganizational stage, victim puts life back together, daily living in a more/less normal fashion - “Disaster Victim’s Model”, coping behaviour of victims of natural disasters, four stages: 1. Pre-impact, state of victim before being victimized 2. Impact, when victimization occurs 3. Post-impact, degree/duration of social and personal disorganization following victimization 4. Behavioural outcome; victim’s adjustment/lack of to the victimization experience Hannah Stewart Chapter 4 SOCI2450 Winter 2012 - Elizabeth Kübler-Ross: stages a dying person goes through has applicability to victimization process, 5-part transitional process: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance. o Can allow for maladjustment in final phase, reduction of life quality - Studies on psychological well-being of victims, criminal victimization can: o Leave psychological scars longer than physical/financial loss o Produce anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse, flashbacks, fear, feeling of social isolation o Develop into Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder o Produce feelings of guilt (especially victims of violence) o Decrease sense of life satisfaction, “world less caring” perception - Post-Crime Victimization/ Secondary Victimization: refers to problems in living that tend to follow from initial victimization, some of which may be related to victim’s interaction with the criminal justice system o Studies: CJS officials, especially police, contribute to victim’s heightened or lessened sense of alienation. Victim distress due to type of offence, perception of severity of criminal sentence, whether restitution received by victim. 90% feel CJS should be responsible for providing a range of victim services, access to such services fell below expectations of victims Emergence of Victim’s Rights Historical Overview of Victim Responses to Crime - Code of Hammurabi: an early set of laws established by the Babylonian King Hammurabi, who ruled the ancient city from 1792-1750 BCE. Offenders make restitution, if offender not found the family of victim were bound to care for victim’s needs o “Golden Age of the Victim”, well cared for and can considerable say in imposing punishment on apprehended offenders - Crimes became offences against society, victim was forgotten (Middle Ages) o Notion of “King’s Peace”, private injury became one of public wrong, law of wr
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