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Chapter 10

chapter 10 criminology.docx

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Carleton University
SOCI 2450
Darryl Davies

Chapter 10 [page 269-298] Social Conflict Perspective There are five fundamental assumptions within the social conflict perspective: 1. Society is divided by conflict rather than integration and consensus 2. Society is made up of groups based on political and economic power 3. Differences in social class and in particular those arrangements within society that maintain class differences are the focus of criminological study 4. Powerful groups make laws that protect and reflect their interest 5. Crime is an outcome of conflict between those who have, and those who have no Social Conflict Perspective : where conflict is a fundamental aspect of life and can never fully be restored. There are 6 major fields of social conflict criminology, radical, critical, feminist, peace-making, restorative, and retributive. 1. Radical Criminology (Marxist - proactive): there are two fundamental social classes (the haves and the have not’s), he called them the proletariat(workers, without power) and the bourgeoisie(capitalists-hold all the power); the justice system is setup in such a way that supports the ruling class. The cause of crime is rooted in social conditions that empower the wealthy and the politically well-organized but disenfranchise those less fortunate. Each person is put into a social class which they are either ascribed to (born into) or achieved status (worked for it). - The powerful make laws and they are in the best interest of them. Police and criminal law are created to ensure the powerful maintain their dominance over society. - Chambliss and Seidman: Society today has so many different groups and because there are so many groups there are so many conflicting sets of norms. Whether or not a groups set of norms will become accepted in society depends on how powerful the group is (ex. Since gangsters are not the dominant group it is not normal for people to have extremely saggy pants), the higher the economic and political position the greater the probability that its views will be reflected in the laws. - Structural Marxism institutions of society influence the behaviour of individuals and groups by virtue of the type of relationships created - Instrumental Marxism  those in power intentionally create laws that serve their own interests and that keep others from becoming powerful 2. Critical Criminology (reactive): emphasizes challenging existing understandings of crimes and uncovering false beliefs. 3. Feminist: women have been ignored within the field of criminology; this theory emphasizes the recognition of gender equality. - Patriarchy the tradition of male dominance  Gender is not a natural fact but derived from the creation of social and historical forces (political creation).  Gender relations and constructs on masculinity and femininity are based on an organizing principle of men’s superiority and their dominance over women  Systems of knowledge reflect men’s views of the natural and social world-that men are superior.  Women should be at the centre, not at the periphery, of intellectual inquiry. - Radical feminist any significant change in the status of women can be accomplished only through substantial changes in social institutions - Liberal feminist concerns of women can be incorporated within existing social institutions though conventional means, no need for drastic reform - Socialist feminist social roles and the gender based division of labour within the family, seeing both as a significant source of womens insubordination within society - Power control theory crime comes from power relationships within society for domestic settings (family relations, intimate relationships etc) 4. Peace-making Criminology: holds that crime control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering; there are five issues:  The perpetuation
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