TRAV216 Chapter 4: chapter04 Planing research and ayalysis

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12 Feb 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Ch 4 Customer
Behavior
Ch 5 Analyzing
Marketing
Opportunities
Ch 6 Marketing
Research
Planning:
Research and
Analysis
PART 2
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Customer Behavior
Where Are We Now?
OBJECTIVES
Having read this chapter, you should be
able to:
List and describe six personal factors
that influence customer behavior.
List and describe four factors that
influence customersperceptions of
hospitality and travel services.
List and explain the role of stimulus
factors in perception.
List and describe five interpersonal
factors that influence customer
behavior.
List and describe the seven stages in
the customer buying process.
Explain the three categories of
decision processes that customers
follow.
Explain the purchasing process of
organizational buyers.
OVERVIEW
Why do customers behave the way they do? This is a
question everyone involved in marketing must answer.
If we can understand customersbehavior, we are in a
much better position to customize services, prices, pro-
motions, and distribution channels to fit their individual
needs and wants.
This chapter explains that peoples behavior is influ-
enced both by personal and interpersonal factors. The
key factors in each of the two categories are discussed.
The relative importance of information from commercial
and personal sources is examined. All customers go
through a series of stages when they decide to buy
hospitality and travel services. This chapter emphasizes
that marketers need to understand the decision pro-
cesses that customers use.
chapter 4
97
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Have you ever thought about the products and services you buy? What about
some of your most prized possessions, such as your laptop computer, car, cell
phone or PDA, or MP5? Did you decide to buy these items completely on your
own, or did you ask friends for advice? Did you take more time to make these
decisions than you do when you choose a fast-food restaurant, for example?
Have you ever bought things because you thought your friends would ap-
prove of them?
Why are we asking you so many questions? Simple! We want you to realize
what a complex decision-making unit you are. If you live in North America,
multiply yourself as an individual decision maker by a factor of about 447 mil-
lion (Canada, Mexico, United States) and you will have some idea of the enor-
mous task that marketing decision makers.
1
If you live in Europe or in the
Asia-Pacific region, the market of potential customers is even bigger and
more complex. This chapter looks at why people do the things they do.
Marketing managers must understand customersbehavior patterns and why
they occur. This means not only knowing how customers act when they are
consuming services, but also their pre-purchase and post-purchase behavior.
Behavior of Individual Customers
Customer behavior is the way customers select, use, and behave before and after
they have purchased hospitality and travel services. Two types of factors influence
KEY TERMS
AIOs (activities, interests,
opinions)
buying process
cognitive dissonance
commercial information
sources
culture
customer behavior
evoked set
family life-cycle
individual customers
Internal sources
Interpersonal factors
learning
lifestyles
motivation
motives
need
need recognition
non-commercial sources (non
marketer-dominated)
objective criteria
objectives
opinion leaders
organizational buying behavior
perception
personal factors
personality
primary groups
product adoption curve
psychographics
reference groups
secondary groups
self-concept
social class
social information sources
subcultures
subjective criteria
VA L S
TM
wants
word-of-mouth information
(W-O-M)
98 Planning: Research and Analysis
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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