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Chapter 40

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BIOL 225
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BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FORM AND FUNCTIONS 40 Animals are incredibly diverse both in their morphology and physiology and in the niches they occupyIn spite of this diversity animals share many features and often face similar challenges Themes are university and diversity Natural selection has driven the evolution of animals that are wellsuited to their environment Also structure and function Evolution is constrained by chem and physExample fish are shaped the way they are because it creates less drag thanks to the physics of water Same thing with birds and animals that fly Size matters Not everything works at different sizes analogy with huge ants the bigger they are they less weight they can liftThermoregulation some animals are called regulators which means they keep homeostasis in their body thermoregulation when it comes to beavers that keep the same body temperature no matter the temperature of the water Unlike the beavers fish keep the same temperature of the water They are called conformers If its too cold for every 10C 18F decrease in temperature the rates of most enzymemediated reactions decrease 2 to 3 times Membranes may change properties becoming more rigidIf its too hot increases in temp increase reaction rates but may decrease the activity of certain proteins At higher temp proteins may denature lose their tertiary and secondary structure Membranes may change properties becoming more fluid Endothermic referring to organisms for which internal sourcesmetabolism provide most of the heat for temp regulation endoinsideEctothermic referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temp regulation ectooutsideHomeothermic referring to organisms that maintain a relatively constant body temp thermoregulator warmblooded
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