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Chapter 5

COMM 222 Chapter 5: CHAPTER 5
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Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 222
Professor
Tony Bongiorno

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CHAPTER 5
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
o The person works hard, keeps at his or her work, and directs his or her behaviour
toward appropriate outcomes.
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION
o The amount of effort the person exhibits on the job
o How hard a person works to perform a chosen behaviour
o The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks (regarding
duration and when facing obstacles)
o Effort and Persistence refer mainly to the quantity of work an individual produces
o Refes to the ualit of a peso’s ok
o The dietio of the peso’s ok-related behaviour
o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
o Motivated people act to enhance organizational objectives
Effort
Persistence
Goals
Direction
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EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Some hold the view that people are motivated by factors in the external environment (such as
supervision or pay), while others believe that people can in some sense, be self-motivated
without the application of these external factors.
Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and
the task; it is usually self-applied.
o Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge and competence derived from
pefoig oe’s jo ae eaples of itisi otiatos, as is shee iteest i the jo
itself.
Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it
is usually applied by others
o Pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision are examples of
extrinsic motivators.
MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE
Performance is the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the
objectives of the organization.
o People a e highl otiated ut just do’t see to pefo ell
o While motivation clearly contributes to performance, the relationship is not one to one,
because a number of other factors also influence performance.
o It is certainly possible for performance to be low even when a person is highly motivated
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The term cognitive ability is often used to refer to intelligence or mental ability
General Cognitive Ability: A peso’s asi ifoatio-processing capacities and cognitive
resources.
Emotional Intelligence: The ailit to udestad ad aage oe’s o ad othe’s feeligs
and emotions.
o High motivation will not result in high performance if employees have low general
cognitive ability and emotional intelligence, do not understand their jobs, or encounter
unavoidable obstacles over which they have no control.
NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which
they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance.
Need theories are concerned with what motivates workers
MCCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS
A non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain
needs result in particular patterns of motivation.
o Aodig to MClellad’s theo of eeds, needs reflect relatively stable personality
characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected
aspets of oe’s soiet.
o Concerned with 3 needs 1) achievement, 2) affiliation, and 3) power.
o Source of motivation = needs (people will be motivated to find and perform in jobs that
match their needs)
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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com CHAPTER 5 WHAT IS MOTIVATION? The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal o The person works hard, keeps at his or her work, and directs his or her behaviour toward appropriate outcomes. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION Effort o The amount of effort the person exhibits on the job o How hard a person works to perform a chosen behaviour Persistence o The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks (regarding duration and when facing obstacles) o Effort and Persistence refer mainly to the quantity of work an individual produces Direction o Refe▯s to the ▯ualit▯ of a pe▯so▯’s ▯o▯k o The di▯e▯tio▯ of the pe▯so▯’s ▯o▯k-related behaviour Goals o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed o Motivated people act to enhance organizational objectives find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Some hold the view that people are motivated by factors in the external environment (such as supervision or pay), while others believe that people can in some sense, be self-motivated without the application of these external factors. IntrinsicMotivation:Motivationthatstemsfromthedirectrelationshipbetweentheworkerand the task; it is usually self-applied. o Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge and competence derived from pe▯fo▯▯i▯g o▯e’s jo▯ a▯e e▯a▯ples of i▯t▯i▯si▯ ▯oti▯ato▯s, as is shee▯ i▯te▯est i▯ the jo▯ itself. Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others o Pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision are examples of extrinsic motivators. MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE Performance is the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization. o People ▯a▯ ▯e highl▯ ▯oti▯ated ▯ut just do▯’t see▯ to pe▯fo▯▯ ▯ell o While motivation clearly contributes to performance, the relationship is not one to one, because a number of other factors also influence performance. o It is certainly possible for performance to be low even when a person is highly motivated find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com The term cognitive ability is often used to refer to intelligence or mental ability General Cognitive Ability: A pe▯so▯’s ▯asi▯ i▯fo▯▯atio▯-processing capacities and cognitive resources. Emotional Intelligence: The a▯ilit▯ to u▯de▯sta▯d a▯d ▯a▯age o▯e’s o▯▯ a▯d othe▯’s feeli▯gs and emotions. o High motivation will not result in high performance if employees have low general cognitive ability and emotional intelligence, do not understand their jobs, or encounter unavoidable obstacles over which they have no control. NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance. Need theories are concerned with what motivates workers MCCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS A non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation. o A▯▯o▯di▯g to M▯Clella▯d’s theo▯▯ of ▯eeds, needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspe▯ts of o▯e’s so▯iet▯. o Concerned with 3 needs 1) achievement, 2) affiliation, and 3) power. o Source of motivation = needs (people will be motivated to find and perform in jobs that match their needs) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com We seek and do well in jobs that match our needs! Need for Achievement A strong desire to perform challenging tasks well Individuals with a high nAch: o Prefer situations in which they can take personal responsibility for outcomes o Tend to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks o Desire performance feedback o Concerned with bettering their own performance or that of others o They are often concerned with innovation and long-term goal involvement In what kind of positions would these people perform best? o Attracted to positions where they have to solve problems, like scientist or engineer o Where there is a direct relation between personal efforts and successful jobs outcomes, like salespeople on commission o Entrepreneurial positions (running a small business) Need for affiliation A strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships o They like to like others and they want others to like them o People with a high nAff have an ability to learn social networking quickly and a tendency to communicate frequently with others o They prefer to avoid conflict and competition with others. o Desire for approval and reassurance from others In what kinds of positions would these people perform best? find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Motivated by jobs such as social work or customer relations because these jobs have as a primary task establishing good relations with others. o They would prefer to work with others on tasks, also in jobs where they can listen to others (like in psychology, social services…▯ Need for power A strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression o People with a high nPow seek out social settings in which they can be influential o When in small groups, they act in a high profile attention getting manner o Show a strong concern for personal prestige In what positions would these people perform best? o Jobswheretheyareinpositionsofauthority,forexamplemilitaryormanagerialpositions o High motivation in jobs that enable one to have a strong impact on others – journalism, politics SELF_DETERMINATION THEORY A theory of ▯oti▯atio▯ that ▯o▯side▯s ▯hethe▯ people’s ▯oti▯atio▯ is auto▯o▯ous o▯ ▯o▯t▯olled. o Self-determination theory makes a distinction between two types of motivation: autonomous (or self-determined) motivation and controlled (or not self-determined) motivation. o Autonomous Motivation is self-motivation or intrinsic motivation that occurs when people feel the▯ a▯e i▯ ▯o▯t▯ol of thei▯ ▯oti▯atio▯. People’s a▯tio▯s a▯e i▯te▯▯all▯ ▯athe▯ than externally regulated find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Controlled Motivation is motivation that is externally controlled, such as when one is ▯oti▯ated to o▯tai▯ a desi▯ed ▯o▯se▯ue▯▯e o▯ e▯t▯i▯si▯ ▯e▯a▯d. I▯di▯iduals’ ▯oti▯atio▯ is externally regulated. Controlled motivation is similar to extrinsic motivation. o According to SDT, there are three basic psychological needs that are important for all individuals: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. o Workenvironmentsthatleadtothesatisfactionofthe3psychologicalneedswillpromote autonomous motivation (more positive work outcomes and effective performance). When these needs are not satisfied, motivation will be controlled. Need theo▯ies of ▯oti▯atio▯ ▯M▯Clella▯d’s Theo▯▯ of Needs▯ a▯d self-determination theory concentrate on what motivates people. Process theories concentrate on how motivation occurs. Three important process theories are: expectancy theory, equity theory, and goal setting theory. EXPECTANCY THEORY (PAGE 171-173) A process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job. (1st Level Outcome) (2nd Level Outcome) Effort Performance Outcome FORCE Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Motivation = Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Outcomes The consequences that follow work behaviour o First-level outcomes are of particular interest to the organization ex: productivity/good attendance o Second-level outcomes are consequences that follow the attainment of a particular first-level outcome. They are most personally relevant to the individual worker and might involve amount of pay, sense of accomplishment, acceptance by peers, fatigue Instrumentality The probability that a particular first-level outcome (such as high productivity) will be followed by a particular second-level outcome (such as pay). Valence The expecte
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