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Chapter 5

COMM 222 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Goal Setting, Motivation, Expectancy TheoryPremium

13 pages42 viewsWinter 2017

Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 222
Professor
Tony Bongiorno
Chapter
5

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CHAPTER 5
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
o The person works hard, keeps at his or her work, and directs his or her behaviour
toward appropriate outcomes.
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION
o The amount of effort the person exhibits on the job
o How hard a person works to perform a chosen behaviour
o The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks (regarding
duration and when facing obstacles)
o Effort and Persistence refer mainly to the quantity of work an individual produces
o Refes to the ualit of a peso’s ok
o The dietio of the peso’s ok-related behaviour
o All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed
o Motivated people act to enhance organizational objectives
Effort
Persistence
Goals
Direction
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EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Some hold the view that people are motivated by factors in the external environment (such as
supervision or pay), while others believe that people can in some sense, be self-motivated
without the application of these external factors.
Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and
the task; it is usually self-applied.
o Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge and competence derived from
pefoig oe’s jo ae eaples of itisi otiatos, as is shee iteest i the jo
itself.
Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it
is usually applied by others
o Pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision are examples of
extrinsic motivators.
MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE
Performance is the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the
objectives of the organization.
o People a e highl otiated ut just do’t see to pefo ell
o While motivation clearly contributes to performance, the relationship is not one to one,
because a number of other factors also influence performance.
o It is certainly possible for performance to be low even when a person is highly motivated
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The term cognitive ability is often used to refer to intelligence or mental ability
General Cognitive Ability: A peso’s asi ifoatio-processing capacities and cognitive
resources.
Emotional Intelligence: The ailit to udestad ad aage oe’s o ad othe’s feeligs
and emotions.
o High motivation will not result in high performance if employees have low general
cognitive ability and emotional intelligence, do not understand their jobs, or encounter
unavoidable obstacles over which they have no control.
NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which
they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance.
Need theories are concerned with what motivates workers
MCCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS
A non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain
needs result in particular patterns of motivation.
o Aodig to MClellad’s theo of eeds, needs reflect relatively stable personality
characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected
aspets of oe’s soiet.
o Concerned with 3 needs 1) achievement, 2) affiliation, and 3) power.
o Source of motivation = needs (people will be motivated to find and perform in jobs that
match their needs)
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