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PHIL 210 (6)
Chapter 5

phil-chapter 5.docx

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Course Code
PHIL 210
Gregory Lavers

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Chapter 5: Critical Thinking about Numbers Quantification: • Using numbers and numerical concepts to characterize things. Representing number: • Encodes what`s important about the given information. • Interpreted through o Percentages o Percentiles o Ordinal numbers o Averages • However in all cases: o There is lost information o Misleading suggestions o Metric and underlying measurements are intelligibly mathematized. Percentages: • Not normally an absolute number • Meaningfulness depends in part on the size of the absolute values involved. • Cannot be straightforwardly combined with other percentages, without knowing and controlling for differences in absolute values. • They are not raw score unless the data happens to be out of 100, but are representative of the raw score. Example 70% represents the raw score of 21/30 Percentile: th • Used to quantify values by how they compare to other values. To score in the 90 percentile on attest, for example, is to have a raw score better than 90% of the class. • Percentiles are inherently comparative within a group. • Always question: what informat
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