POLI 204 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Quebec Act, Lower Canada, Upper Canada Rebellion
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Chapter 2 – The Historical Context
‘Evolutionary change rather than revolutionary change.’
Early Settlement and History
First settled 10,000 years ago by the ancestors of contemporary
First Nations (Native Americans).
oCrossed from Asia
European settlement began in the 17 th
New France along the St. Lawrence River
Acadia in the (now) Maritime Provinces.
Atlantic region of US (13 colonies)
Small colonies in Newfoundland.
oRelations between Aboriginal and Europeans were cordial.
Traded, gave knowledge of terrain, etc.
oFrance vs. Britain
Treaty of Utrecht (1713): France ceded control of
mainland Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and lands
surrounding Hudson Bay to Great Britain.
Con2icts persisted in Acadia, and in 1774, several
thousand French Acadians were expelled.
Seven Years War (1756-63)
British army captured Quebec City, the capital
of New France, in the Battle of the Plains of
Abraham in 1759.
Treaty of Paris (1763): New France and Acadia ceded
By 1763, Britain controlled French Canada
After British Conquest
oFate of the ‘Indians’
Royal Proclamation of 1763 “established British rule
over the former French colonies and placed ‘Indians’
under the protection of the British Crown.”
They are to be left undisturbed, established their
exclusive hunting rights, and their land cannot be
sold without approval from the Monarch.
Britain hoped Quebec be converted into a province
with British ancestry…didn’t happen.
Remained primarily French speaking and