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Chapter 1

PSYC 363 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Computer-Aided Technologies, Action Potential, Cranial Nerves


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 363
Professor
Michael Lantz
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1: Course Overview
Perception is the link between YOU and the WORLD.
Perceptual Processes
Some Interesting Questions
1. Why does a foreign language sound
like a continuous stream of sound?
2. Why do I lose my sense of taste when I have a cold?
3. How do artists create a perception of depth in their paintings?
What’s Out There
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Chapter 1: Course Overview
Study Perceptions Through Neurons and the Brain
1. Neurons & Neural signals
2. Brain Organization:
a) Neuroscience
3. Behavior:
a) Psychophysics.
Discovering the Neuron
1. Mueller (1842):
a) Doctrine of specific nerve energies.
2. Different cranial nerves  type of perception we experience.
3. Wilder Penfield:
a) We only experience neural firing, not the outside world!
4. Helmholtz:
a) Disproved “vitalism” (life force distinct from physical entities).
b) Measured the speed of nerve firing.
5. Golgi (1870s):
a) Stained neurons to see structure.
b) Saw neurons firing.
6. Cajal:
a) Drew structure of different types of neurons, noted they connected to other neurons.
7. Sherrington (1897)
a) Called gab between neuron “Synapse”.
8. Loewi (1921)
a) Chemical transmitted through synapse.
b) Neurotransmitter
c) Excitatory or Inhibitory.
The Neuron in Action
1. Hodgkin & Huxley (late 1940s)
a) Action Potential:
i. Electrical impulse that surges along axon, caused by influx of positive ions in
neuron
ii. Cell “fires”.
2. Resting Potential:
a) Neuron not firing.
b) Difference in charge = -70 mV
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