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Chapter 15

BIOC 3300 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Metabolic Pathway, Reaction Mechanism, Stoichiometry

Biochem & Molecular Biology
Course Code
BIOC 3300
Mc Leod Roger

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1. Adenylate energy charge: - A measure of the number of
phosphoanhydride bonds.
= ([ATP] + 0.5 [ADP]) / [ ATP+ ADP + AMP]
- An index used to measure the energy status of biological cells.
It is related to ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations.
- different cells have different energy charges.
2. Aerobe: An organism, such as a bacterium, requiring free
oxygen to live (for respiration).
Aerobic means "requiring air," in which "air" usually means
3. Anabolism: biosynthesis of biomolecules from simpler
components; promote growth and cell division.
Produce cell macromelecules (proteins, polysaccharides, lipids,
nucleic acids) from precursor molecules (amino acids, sugars,
fatty acids, nitrofenous bases). Use energy (ATP, NADH, NADPH,
4. Anaerobes: An organism that does not require oxygen for
5. ATP: - high energy compound
- contains at least one bond with a high ΔG' of hydrolysis
6. Autotrophs: - "self-feeding" (photosynthetic)
- synthesize all necessary cell components from simple
molecules, deriving energy required by inorganic oxidation or
from light
7. Bioenergetics of Metabolism in Biological Systems:
Biosynthetic reactions are driven by the oxidation of organic
substrates. This is the equivalent of combustion, but the energy
is released in small increments that allows for a greater degree
of control of the site and uses of that energy.
8. Caloric Content: The more highly reduced a substrate, the
more energy is released during its oxidation.
fat is more highly reduced than carbohydrate and contains
more energy per g. The ΔG for oxidation is more negative for a
compound with higher caloric
content (oxidation yields more energy).
A Calorie (kcal) is the amount of energy needed to raise the
temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius.
Calorific value: the quantity of heat produced by the complete
combustion of a given mass of a fuel, usually expressed in joules
per kilogram
9. Catabolism: the degradation of cell constituents to generate
energy or to salvage components (oxidation).
From energy-containing nutrients (carbohydrates, fats,
proteins) to energy-depleted end products ( carbon dioxide,
water, ammonia).
Generate ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2, and chemical energy.
10. Central Pathways of energy metabolism: - Major metabolic
pathways involved in large amounts of mass (FLUX) transfer
and energy generation
- "heavy traffic"
- "Freeways"
11. Characteristics that makes two directions of a reaction
different:: 1. Different reaction sequence.
2. DIfferent reaction mechanism.
3. Different enzymes.
4. separate cellular components.
12. Distinct pathways for biosynthesis and degradation: (These
reactions are reverse to the central pathways of energy
However, several characteristics make them different, one or
more of which may serve to make each direction distinct.
13. Energy Metabolism: Portion of intermediary metabolism
involved with energy generation and storage.
The process of generating energy (ATP) from nutrients.
14. Fat vs. Carbohydrate: Fat has lower RQ , but higher caloric
content than carbohydrates.
15. Fermentation: - In the absence of oxygen, catabolism proceeds
without change in the oxidation state of the substrates during
conversion to products.
- A metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or
alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-
starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation.
16. Goals of study in Experimental Analysis of Metabolism: (i)
identify reactants, products, cofactors and stoichiometry of
(ii) determine mechanisms of regulation in the tissue
(iii) identify physiological function of the reaction
17. Healthy cell adenylate energy charge: ~ 0.9.
- ATP (2-8 mM) is usually present at several-fold higher
concentration than ADP
18. Heterotrophs: - "feeding on others"
- depend on autotrophs for organic molecules and derive
energy from oxidation of organic compounds
19. high energy bond in ATP: phosphoanhydride bonds
20. High Energy Phosphate Compounds: - Phosphoenolpyruvate
- 1,3- bisphosphoglycerate
- Phosphocreatine
21. How do biological systems capture energy?: By synthesis of
22. How do Organisms Acquire Raw Material for Metabolism?: -
- Heterotrophs
23. Intermediary Metabolism: All reactions involved in
generating, storing or utilizing metabolic energy;
Doesn't involve nucleic acid.
The intracellular process by which nutritive material is
converted into cellular components—called also intermediate
24. Low Energy Phosphate Compounds: glucose-6-phosphate;
Synthesis of these molecules are endergonic reactions.
Need to drive by hydrolysis of ATP.
Lec 1- Introduction to Metabolism
Study online at quizlet.com/_1vww52
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