Lecture 10 - Chapter 9.docx

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Department
Health and Human Performance
Course
HAHP 2000
Professor
Matthew Numer
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter IX Physical & Cognitive Development in Middle & Late Childhood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: • Proportional changes are most pronounced o Head & waist circumference o Leg length decreases in relation to body height Body Growth & Proportion: • Muscle mass & tone improve o Strength doubles • 2.27 – 3.18 kg/year gained on average o Weight increases mostly due to changes in skeletal/muscular systems as well as the increased  size of some organs Motor Development: • Motor development becomes smoother & more coordinated o Skipping rope, swimming, bike riding, skating & climbing are mastered • Increased myelination of CNS results in improvement of fine motor skills o Hands used more adroitly as tools  Hammering, pasting, tying shoes, fastening clothes, etc. o By 10­12, kids begin to demo competent manipulative skills similar to adult abilities Health: Accidents &  • Motor vehicle accidents (pedestrian or passenger) most common cause of severe  Injury injury/death o Seat­belt use important in reducing number of serious injuries/deaths • Skateboards, roller skates, other sports account for serious injury stats as well Cancer • 2  leading cause of death in children 5­14 yrs of age o 1/330 children in US will develop cancer before age 19 Disabilities: • Who are children with disabilities? o Prevalence of non­physical disabilities in CAN children  10% with learning disabilities  5­10% with ADD  6­14% with conduct disorder, hyperactivity & emotional disturbances o More common in boys than girls Learning  • Most common problem hallmarking learning disability involves reading Disabilities o Dyslexia a severe form of reading impairment • Difficulties in handwriting, spelling or composition • Successful support & intervention programs exist 1 Chapter IX Physical & Cognitive Development in Middle & Late Childhood ADHD • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder • Child consistently shows one or more of the following over time o Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity • Treatment o Combination of academic, behavioral, medical interventions preferred  treatment to help better learning/coping/adaptation o Ritalin/other stimulant meds prescribed to slow down nervous system & help  regulate impulsive/inattentive behavior Educational  • CAN moved from educating kids with disabilities in segregated classrooms to current  Issues practice of mainstreaming o Educate child with special needs in a regular classroom COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Memory: • STM shows no considerable increase after age 7, LTM increases with age in middle/late childhood • LTM depends on learning activities individuals engage in when learning/remembering info • Expertise describes organized factual knowledge about a particular content area o If child has expertise in an area, memory tends to be good regarding material related to that  expertise Critical Thinking: • Involves grasping deeper meaning of ideas, keeping an open mind about different  approaches/perspectives & deciding for oneself what to believe or do • Deep understanding occurs when children are stimulated to rethink prior ideas Some experts believe schools speed too much time on getting student to give a single correct answer in an  imitative way, rather than encouraging students to expand their thinking & become deeply engaged in 
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