Lecture 12 - Chapter 12.docx

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Health and Human Performance
HAHP 2000
Matthew Numer

Chapter XII Socio­Emotional Development in Adolescence SELF­ESTEEM & IDENTITY: Self­Esteem: • Adolescent self­esteem related to positive family relationships • Effects of developmental changes & gender differences on self­esteem during adolescence  INCONCLUSIVE • Behavioral indicators of self­esteem Positive Indicators Negative Indicators Gives others directions/commands Puts down others by gossiping/teasing/bullying Voice quality appropriate for situation Dramatic/out of context gestures Expressed opinions Inappropriate touching/physical contact Sits with others during social activities Makes excuses for failures Works cooperatively in a group Glances around to monitor others Faces others when speaking/being spoken to Brags excessively Maintains eye contact in conversation Self­deprecation Initiates friendly contact with others Speaks too loudly, abruptly or in dogmatic tones Maintains comfortable space between self & others Does not express views/opinions, even when asked Little hesitation in speech, speaks fluently Submissive stance Identity: • Erikson described adolescence as a psychological moratorium (gap) between security of childhood &  autonomy of adulthood • Psychosocial dilemma of adolescence is IDENTITY vs. IDENTITY CONFUSION • Adolescents experiment with numerous roles & identities they draw from surrounding culture o Try out different identities in adolescence to develop an acceptable sense of self • Adolescents who do now resolve identity crisis experience identity confusion Components of Self­Portrait: • Vocational/career • Success/intellectual • Personality • Political • Sexual • Physical • Religious • Cultural/ethnic • Relationship • Interests Contemporary Thoughts About Identity: • ID development is a lengthy process & is extraordinarily complex • What influences ID? Do these influences change over time? The Development of Identity: • 3 fundamental aspects of young adolescents ID formation development are: o Confidence in parental support o Sense of industry o Self­reflective perspective on the future 1 Chapter XII Socio­Emotional Development in Adolescence Ethnic Identity: • An enduring, basic aspect of self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group & the attitudes  & feelings related to that membership Gender & Identity Development: • Erikson originally asserted that  o Male’s aspirations were mainly oriented towards career/ideological commitments o Female’s aspirations were centered around marriage & childbearing • However, in the past 20 years females have developed stronger vocational interests & gender differences  are now turning into gender similarities FAMILIES: Autonomy: • Autonomy/control acquired through appropriate adult reactions to adolescent’s desire for control o Adolescents push for autonomy • Gradually, adolescents acquire the ability to make mature decisions on their own Parent­Adolescent Conflict: • Parents often expect their adolescents to becomes mature adults overnight o Instead of understanding that the journey takes 10­15 years • Conflict varies by culture PEERS: Cliques: • Allegiance to cliques can exert powerful control over lives of teens o Group ID often overrides personal ID • One study found correlational data linking clique membership to self­esteem • Extreme example of clique influence o Reena Virk, an adolescent girl beaten to death by 6 girls aged 14­15 • Clique rules of ‘not snitching’ were ingrained in members, even in cases of murder Adolescent Groups vs. Childhood Groups: Adolescent Groups Childhood Groups Tend to include a broader array of members Usually made up of friends or neighborhood  acquaintances Findings on Friendship: • Friendship takes centre stage at this time o Depend more on friends than on parents to satisfy their needs for intimacy, companionship &  reassurance of worth o More intimate & personal information shared with friends • Quality of friendship more strongly linked to feelings of well­being during adolescence
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