Lecture 13 - Chapter 13.docx

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Dalhousie University
Health and Human Performance
HAHP 2000
Matthew Numer

Chapter XIII Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood PHYSICAL & COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD: 1. Transition from adolescence to adulthood 2. Physical development, health & wellness 3. Sexuality 4. Cognitive development 5. Careers & work THE TRANSITION FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD: The Criteria for Becoming an Adult: • First permanent, full­time job most widely recognized marker of adulthood • Economic independence also a criterion • More than 70% college students report that being an adult means: o Accepting responsibility for the consequences on one’s actions o Deciding one’s own beliefs & values o Establishing a relationship with one’s parents as an equal adult   Unlikely to happen (myth) Stress: • Stress & depression rates higher among post­secondary students today­ why? o Needing to succeed in school, getting a good job after graduation, making lots of money Education: • CAN highest rate of university attendance in the world (41% of 18­21 yrs enrolled in university) PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH & WELLNESS: Peak/Slowdown in  • Peak physical performance & best overall health between 19­26 yrs Physical  Performance o Few young adults have chronic health problems • Hidden danger of peak performance/health is that YA push bodies too far &  bounce back too quickly o Leads to health problems later in life • Muscle tone & strength show signs of decline ~30 yrs Obesity • Heredity accounts for 25­70% variance in body mass o Identical twins have similar weights, even if reared apart o Animals can be inbred to have a propensity for obesity • Set point­ Weight maintained if NO effort made to gain/lose weight o Fat stored in adipose cells that when filled, prevent hunger • With weight gain, number of fat cells increases (possibly for good) • Environmental factors 1 Chapter XIII Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood o Doubling rate of obesity since 1900 in US suggests strong  environmental role in weight gain  Greater availability of food (especially high fat food)  Energy saving devices  Declining PA o Obesity 6x more prevalent in women with low incomes vs. women with  high incomes o US more obese than EURO & many other areas of the world Substance Abuse • 87% university students drink alcohol • Cigarette smoking linked to  o 30% cancer deaths o 21% heart disease deaths o 82% chronic pulmonary disease deaths • Second hand smoke results in 9000 lung cancer deaths/year Disease Model of Addiction: • Biologically based – Viewed as a lifelong disease involving loss of control over behavior o Requires medical/spiritual treatment for recovery (AA) o ~85% relapse • Addiction is either inherited or bred into a person early in life o Current or recent problems not viewed as causal • Addicts can never be cured or rid of the ‘disease’ Life Process Model of Addiction: • Addiction is an habitual response NOT a disease o Source of gratification or security  o Result of conditioning • Addiction should be viewed/understood in context of social relationships/experiences COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT/STAGES: Piaget’s View • YA more quantitatively advanced in their thinking than adolescents (have  more knowledge) o Adults increase their knowledge (especially in specific areas) • Adolescents begin to plan/hypothesize about intellectual problems • Many adults do not think at the formal operational level Reflective &  • Perry’s Theory proposed that Relativistic Thinking o Adolescents view world in polarities  2 Chapter XIII Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  Right/wrong, good/bad, we/they o As we advance into adulthood, absolute, dualistic thinking gives way  to reflective, relativistic thinking  Shades of grey as opposed to black/white CAREERS & WORK: Developmental  • As we age, begin to examine money/happiness when choosing career Stages o Children have idealistic fantasies o In HS, begin to think of careers on a less idealistic basis o Late teens/early twenties, career choice becomes more serious o Mid­20s to remainder of adulthood, est. career is a major focus Personality Types • Holland’s Personality Type matches personality traits & career choice o Increased work enjoyment & job longevity may result o Pure personality types rare, most people a combination of types • Strong Campbell Interest Inventory uses Holland’s 6 Personality types
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