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Canada (162,366)
HPRO 3250 (14)
Jo Welch (14)
Chapter 1

Nutrition chapter 1.docx

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Department
Health Promotion
Course Code
HPRO 3250
Professor
Jo Welch

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CHAPTER 1: The Role of Nutrition in Our Health Nutrition: The science that studies food & how food nourishes our bodies and influences our health.  Weight control  Disease prevention  Energy and Vitality Historically| Vitamin C deficiency lead to Scurvy; diet was a means to cure criminal behavior and cast out devils. WHO definition of health: “ A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Nutrient Deficiencies can lead to life threatening illnesses such as scurvy, goiter and rickets. Diseases in which nutrition plays Osteoporosis some role Osteoarthritis Some forms of Cancer Disease with a strong nutritional Type 2 Diabetes component Heart disease High Blood Pressure Obesity Disease caused by nutritional Pellagra deficiencies/toxicities Scurvy Iron-deficiency anemia Nutrient toxicities Undernutrition: A diet that lacks energy or specific essential nutrients Essential nutrients: Nutrients that must come from food or nutrient supplements because they are not manufactured by the body at all or not in amounts sufficient to meet body’s needs. Overnutrition: A diet that has an imbalance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins or simply too much energy. Malnutrition: Any condition associated with undernutrition or overnutrition. 6 Classes of nutrients Carbohydrates  Only classes of nutrients that provide energy Lipids  All macronutrients and organic nutrients Proteins Vitamins  Inorganic nutrients Minerals Water Organic: A substance or nutrient that contains the element carbon. Inorganic: A substance or nutrient that does not contain the element carbon. Macronutrients: Nutrients that our bodies need in relatively large amount to support normal function and health; Carbs, Fats, and Proteins are macronutrients. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: The primary fuel source for our bodies, particularly for our brain and for physical exercise. (Carbo- carbon; hydrates- water) What is a Calorie: Energy: defined as the capacity to do work. A Kilocalorie (Kcal, or calorie): The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius. It is a unit of measurement we use to quantify the amount of energy in food that can be supplied to the body. (i.e. 1 gram of carbohydrate is equal to 4 kcal/calories. Conversion: 1 kcal = 4.184 (or 4.2) kilojoules Lipids Lipids: An important energy source for our bodies at rest and during low-intensity exercise.  Insoluble in water; but also provide fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids  Include triglycerides (fats), phospholipids, and sterols.  Contain Carbon; as well as hydrogen and oxygen (at lower levels than Carbs)  Yield more energy per gram than either carbohydrates or proteins. Solid fats: Butter, lard, margarine Liquid fats: oils (olive, vegetable, canola oils) Cholesterol: A form of lipid that is synthesized in our bodies, and it can also be consumed in the diet. Proteins Proteins: The only macronutrients that contains nitrogen; the basic building blocks of proteins are amino-acids.  The elements of proteins assemble into building blocks known as amino acids. (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; may also contain sulphur)  We break down dietary proteins into amino acids and reassemble them to build our own body proteins – for instance, the proteins in our muscles and blood.  Supports tissue growth, repair, and maintenance. (metabolism and fluid balance) Vitamins Vitamins: Organic compounds that assist us in regulating our bodies’ processes. Fat-soluble A, D, E, and K  Soluble in fat  Stored in the human body  Toxicity can occur from consuming excess amount, which accumulate in the body. Water-soluble C, B vitamins (thiamin,  Soluble in fat riboflavin, niacin,  Not stored to any vitamin B12, extent in the human pantothenic acid, body bioton, and folate.  Excess excreted in urine  Toxicity generally occurs only as a result of vitamin supplementation. Their solubility in water or fat affects how vitamins are absorbed, transported, and stored in our bodies Contrary to belief, vitamins do not contain energy; however, vitamins do play an important role in helping our bodies to release and use the energy found in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Micronutrients: Nutrients needed in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions. Vitamins and some minerals are micronutrients. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed in our intestines along with dietary fat. They are then transported to the liver or other organs, where they are either used or stored for later use. (in our liver, and in adipose, & other fatty tissues) Storing fat-soluble vitamins can be bad; toxicity symptoms include damage to our hair, skin, bone, eyes, and nervous system. Water Soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal wall directly into the bloodstream; or kidneys filter out any excess water-soluble vitamins we consume, and we excrete this excess in our urine. Minerals Minerals are inorganic substances that are not broken down during digestion and absorption and are not destroyed by heat or light. Minerals assist in the regulation of many body process and are classified as major minerals or trace minerals. Major Minerals Calcium, phosphorus, Needed in amounts magnesium, sodium, greater than 100mg/day potassium, chloride, in our diets. sulphur Amount present in the human body is greater than 5g Trace Minerals Iron, zinc copper, Needed in amounts less manganese, selenium, than 100 mg/day in our iodine, fluoride, diets. chromium, molybdenum. Amount present in the human body is less than 5g Water Water is an inorganic nutrient that is vital for our survival. Adequate water intake ensured the proper balance of fluid both inside and outside our cells; it assist in the regulation of nerve impulses, muscle contractions, nutrient transport, and excretion of waste products. See page 17. DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES (DRI) The DRIs for most nutrients consist of 4 values: Important 2: RNI and RDA The Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) The average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) The average daily nutrient intake level that meets the nutrient requirements of 97% to 98% of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. Adequate Intake (AI) A recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. The Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is the average daily energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult. The EER is defined by a person’s age, gender, weight, height, and physical activity level. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) are ranges of intakes for particular energy sources that are associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while also providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Nutrients and AMDR Carbohydrate 45%-65% Fat 20%-35% Protein 10%-35% CHAPTER 2: Planning a Nutritious diet Nutritious diet: A diet that provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients and is adequate, moderate, balanced, and varied. What is a Nutritious Diet? Adequate diet: A diet that provides enough of the energy, nutrients, and fibre to maintain a person’s health. Nutrient density: The relative amount of nutrients per amount of energy (or number of kilocalories) Moderation: Eating the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize the body’s metabolic processes. Balanced diet: A diet that contains the combinations of foods that provides the proper balance of nutrients. Food Labels can have 4 Main Components: st 1. Ingredient list: listed in descending order by weight. (1 ingredient on list is the predominant ingredient) It is essential for people with food allergies. 2. Nutrition Facts table: the table on a food package label that gives the amount of energy and a minimum of 13 key nutrients in 1 serving of the food. 3. Nutrient content claims: These claims are about the amount of a nutrient in a food; i.e. “high in fibre” 4. Health claims: “statements that link a food or food component with reduced risk of disease or a condition (i.e. cancer) in the context of a total diet.” Health Canada permits 5 health claims: (i.e. suggests adequate source or low sodium that may reduce an illness) Chapter 3: What happens to the food we eat? Much of our ability to taste foods actually comes from our sense of smell. Our sense of smell is so distinct that newborn babies can distinguish the scent of their own mother’s breast milk. 4 factors interact to motivate us to eat: sight, smell, taste and texture. Appetite: A psychological desire to consume specific foods Hunger: A physiological sensation that prompts us to eat. The region of brain tissue that is responsible for prompting us to seek food is called the hypothalamus. It triggers hunger by integrating signals from nerve cells throughout our bodies. One important signal comes from specialized cells lining the stomach and small intestine t
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