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NURS 4330 (2)
Chapter 2

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NURS 4330
Patricia Sullivan

Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework Nature of Knowledge: Knowledge Gap: absence of theoretical or scientific knowledge relevant to the phenomenon of interest Knowledge Generation: conduct of research that provides answers to well- thought-out research questions Knowledge Distribution: knowledge shared with profession through formal and informal reporting methods. Knowledge Adoption: New knowledge used to alter practice, develop policies and protocols Knowledge Review and Revision: as new health issues arise, advances in clinical practice occur or knowledge becomes revised or excluded. New questions create need for new research. Ways Nurses Inform Their Practice • Theoretical/Empirical Knowledge - scientific knowledge, quantitative/qualitative, development and testing, observation and measurement • Personal Knowledge - inner experiences/maturation, allows for true interpersonal relationships • Experiential Knowledge - repeated exposure to situations, movement along continuum (novice to competent to expert) • Ethical Knowledge - moral component, moral principles, codes, and theories of ethical conduct, what is “right” and “responsible”, involves confrontation and resolution of ethical conflicts • Aesthetic Knowledge - Art of nursing, expressive, intuitive and creative aspect of nursing, allows deep understanding of human experience • Sociopolitical Knowledge - beyond nurse-client relationship and the profession, understanding of culture, society, and politics, awareness of how society is organized and its implications for health philosophical beliefs: the system of motivating values, concepts, principles, and the nature of human knowledge of an individual, group, or culture; see also paradigm and worldview worldview: the way people in society think about the world; synonym for paradigm paradigm: from the Greek word meaning “pattern”: a set of beliefs and practices, shared by communities of researchers, that guide the knowledge development process. It is a synonym of “worldview” ontology: the science or study of being or existence and its relationship to nonexistence Epistemology: the theory of knowledge; the branch of philosophy concerned with how people know what they know, or what is known to be “truth” Methodology: discipline-specific principles, rules, and procedures that guide the process through which knowledge is acquired Aim of Inquiry: the goals or specific objectives of the research, which vary with the paradigm Context: the personal, social, and political environment in which a phenomenon of interest (time, place, cultural beliefs, values and practices) occurs. Values: personal beliefs of the researcher Post-positivism: the view that a “reality” exists that can be observed, measured, and understood; however, this view is tempered by the belief that science offers an imperfect understanding of the world. Constructivism: the basis for naturalistic (qualitative) research, which developed from writers such as Immanuel Kant, who sought alternative ways of thinking about the world; a belief that reality is not fixed but rather is a construction of the people perceiving it Critical social thought: a philosophical orientation that suggests that reality and a person’s understanding of reality are constructed by people with the most power at a particular point in history TABLE 2-1 Intro to Post-positivism, Critical Theory and Constructivism and how each might influence nursing research today Post-positivist Paradigm: the basis of most quantitative research and, to a smaller extent, qualitative research. Vital values do not influence results of research. Constructivist Paradigm: the basis of most qualitative research, which is concerned with the ways in which people construct their worlds. Values and their potential influences on the research results are accepted as a natural part of the research process Critical Social Theory: the use of both qualitative and quantitative research to highlight historical and current experiences of suffering, conflict and collective struggles. Values and their potential influences on the research results are accepted as a natural part of the research process Qualitative Research: the systematic, interactive and subjective research method used to describe and give meaning to human experiences. Qualitative research is often conducted in natural settings and uses data that are words or text, as opposed to numerical data, to describe the experiences bei
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