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Unit 2 - Lecture 15 - Sleep Textbook Notes.docx

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PSYO 1011

PSYO 1011 Sleep Supplementary Notes 1 Lecture 15: Sleep November 3, 2009 Sleep & Dreaming: • CR do not regulate sleep directly o Promote sleep by decreasing nighttime alertness & best time of day for sleep • 1/3 of life asleep Stages of Sleep: • ~90 min cycle through different stages of sleep o Brain activity & physiological responses change in a predictable way • Beta waves o Occur when awake & alert o High frequency (15­30 cps) but low amplitude • Alpha waves o Relaxed & drowsy o Low frequency (8­12 cps) Stage 1 Through Stage 4: • Stage 1 o Brain wave pattern becomes irregular o Theta waves dominant  3.5­7.5 cps o Light sleep (easily awakened • Stage 2 o Sleep spindles dominant  1­2 second bursts of rapid brain wave activity  12­15 cps o Muscles relax, breathing/HR slows o Harder to awaken • Stage 3 o Delta waves start to make regular appearances  0.5­2 cps PSYO 1011 Sleep Supplementary Notes 2 • Stage 4 o Delta waves dominate EEG • Slow­wave sleep o Stage 3 & 4 o Body relaxed, brain activity decreased o Hard to awaken • Within 60­90 min of falling asleep, stage cycles will look like this o 1­2­3­4­3­2 REM Sleep: • Rapid eye movement sleep o Sleeper’s eyeballs move vigorously back & forth underneath lids • Body highly aroused but there is little to no movement • Vivid dreams • Each cycle through sleep stages takes about 90 min o As hours pass, stage 4 & 3 drop out & REM periods become longer  PSYO 1011 Sleep Supplementary Notes 3 Getting a Night’s Sleep­ Brain & Environment: • Different aspects of the sleep cycle controlled by different brain mechanisms • Basal forebrain o Regulates falling asleep • Brain stem where reticular formation passes through pons o REM sleep • Sleep is  o Biologically related o Environment related  Change of seasons  Shift work/ jet lag  Stress  Noise How much do we Sleep? • Newborn infants­ 16 hrs/day o Half sleep time is REM • As we age, 3 changes occur o Sleep less o REM sleep decreases dramatically during infancy & early childhood  Remains relatively stable thereafter o Time spent in stages 3 & 4 declines  Late adulthood, little slow­wave sleep • How much sleep a person needs is influenced by o Genetic factors o Work schedules o Stress o Age o General health PSYO 1011 Sleep Supplementary Notes 4 Sleep Deprivation: • Negative impact on  o Mood, mental tasks, physical tasks • Takes several nights to recover from sleep deprivation o Do not make up all the sleep time lost Why do we Sleep? • Restoration Model o Sleep recharges our run­down bodies & allows us to recover from physical & mental  fatigue o Need sleep to function at our emotional, mental & physical best o What gets restored? o Adenosine & sleep  Adenosine produced as cells consume fuel  As it accumulates, influences brain systems that decrease alertness & promote  sleep • Signals body to slow down because too much cellular fuel has been  burned • Evolutionary/Circadian Sleep Models o Emphasize sleep’s main purpose is to increase species chances of survival in relation to  environmental demands o Each species developed circadian sleep­wake pattern to increase survival chances o Mechanism for conserving energy • Do specific sleep stages have special functions? o REM sleep vital for mental functioning, learning & memory  REM rebound effect • Increase REM sleep after being deprived of it PSYO 1011 Sleep Supplementary Notes 5 Sleep Disorders: Insomnia: • Chronic difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or experiencing restful sleep • Most common sleep disorder • Pseudoinsomniac o Claim to get no sleep when they actually do • Biological, psychological, environmental, genetic causes o Mental disorders o Drugs o Stress, CR disruptions, poor lifestyle • Treatment o Stimulus control  Condition body to associate stimuli in sleep environment with sleep Narcolepsy: • Extreme daytime sleepiness • Sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks o Last from 1 min to an hour • May experience attacks of cataplexy o Sudden loss of muscles tone triggered
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