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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 (socio-emotional development in early childhood)

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PSYO 2090

Families (chapter 8) Parenting Parenting styles Authoritarian parenting: a restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. The authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange Authoritative parenting: a parenting style in which parents encourage their children to be independent, but still place limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturing toward the child Neglectful parenting: A style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child’s life Indulgent parenting: a style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them Co-parenting The support that parents provide each other in jointly raising a child Parents Lack of cooperation & warmth Conflict Disconnection by one parent Children At risk for problems OR Parents Parental cooperation Warmth Children Prosocial behaviour Competence in peer relations Divorce Children in divorced families are more likely to experience academic, behavioural and interning problems Children who have a mature and responsible personality adjust better upon parents’ divorce Divorce changes the financial and social well- being of parents Children’s adjustment issues in stepfamilies are similar to those in divorced families Before divorce: marital distress, trial separation After divorce: crisis and reorganization Emotional distress (risk for depression and health problems) Disturbance of parent-child relations Better adjustment if parents are harmonious and authoritative Multiple-factor model of divorce Age of child Conflict at home Gender of child (better adjustment with same-sex parent custody -- except when they are really young they should go with the mother) Socially mature and responsible children show few behavioural problems Children with difficult temperament often have problems coping with divorce Developmental consequences of abuse and neglect Child has: Poor emotion regulation Attachment problems Peer relation problems School difficulties Psychological problems Aggressiveness, anxiety, depression, conduct disorder Possible later aggression, substance abuse Variations in families Parent's education Low (authoritarian) High (authoritative) Socioeconomic status Low (authoritarian) Cross-cultural Warm, controlling style most common Worst Disoriented/disorganized attachment Neglectful parenting style Sibling relationship and birth order Siblings interact with each other in positive and negative ways Birth order is related in certain ways to child characteristics, but some critics argue that birth order is not a good predictor of behaviour Birth order First borns: More attention, pressure from parents More adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, anxious, self-controlled Later-borns: Parents less demanding, more influences from older siblings More variety in characteristics Only children: Not dependent, self-centered and uncontrolled Acheivement-oriented Sibling rivalry: a spirit of competition, jealousy, or resentment between siblings Over childhood, the rivalry is characterized by ambivalence (both closeness and conflict) Contributions of siblings to development Emotional support Care taking services Teachers Moral development and gender (chapter 8) Moral development Moral development: the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours regarding standards of right and wrong Rules and regulations about what people should do in their interactions with others Freudian perspective Superego After resolving conflict at phallic stage Moral feelings Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development provided by Freud’s psychoanalytic theory Superego Empathy: responding to another person’s feelings with an emotion that echoes the other’s feelings Perspective taking: learning how to identify a wide range of emotional states help to advance children’s moral development Moral reasoning Piaget’s cognitive development theory Heteronomous morality: the first stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, occurring from approximately 4-7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people Preoperational dimensions of thought Immanent justice Autonomous morality: the 2nd stage displayed by older children (10+ years). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action, one should consider the actor’s intentions as well as the consequences Imminent justice: the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately Social learning theory: reinforcement, punishment, imitation Moral behaviour Behaviour is likely to be repeated if the child is rewarded There is considerable situational variability in moral behaviour Conscience Conscience: an internal regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves an integration of all 3 components of moral development described so far Gender Gender and peer relations Prefer same sex groups by age 3 Boys associate in larger groups Boys are competitive Girls are more collaborative More time in sex groups linked to more gender- stereotyped behaviour What is gender? Gender: the social and psychological dimensions of being male or female Gender identity: the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 Gender role: a set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should think, act, and feel Biological influences Chromosomes and hormones XX = female XY = male The testes secrete large amounts of the class of hormones known as androgens, which lead to the development of male sex organs Low levels of androgens in the female embryo allow the normal development of female sex organs Two main classes of sex hormones are estrogens and androgens, which are secreted by the gonads (ovaries in females, testes in males) Estrogens such as estradiol, influence the development of female physical sex characteristics Androgens, such as testosterone, promote the development of m
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