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Cognitive development in middle and late childhood

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PSYO 2090

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Cognitive development in middle and late childhood Piaget’s concrete operational stage Preschool child’s thought is preoperational Some preschool children may show concrete operational thought The concrete operational stage 7-11 years Can perform concrete operations Can classify things into different sets and subsets Seriation: The concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length) Transitivity: in concrete operational thought, a mental concept that underlies the ability to combine relations logically in order to understand certain conclusions If A is longer than B and B is longer than see children can understand that A is thus longer than C Information processing Memory Long-term memory: relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory that increases with age during middle and late childhood Knowledge and expertise When individuals have expertise about a particular subject, their memory also tends to be good regarding material related to that subject Strategies Elaboration: An important strategy that involves engaging in more extensive processing of information Fuzzy trace theory States that memory is best understood by considering 2 types of memory representations: Verbatim memory trace Gist In this theory, older children’s better memory is attributed to fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information Thinking Critical thinking: thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence Creative thinking: The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems Convergent thinking: Thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking required on conventional tests of intelligence Divergent thinking: thinking that produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity Brainstorming: a technique in which individuals try to come up with ideas and play off each idea. This can be done alone or in a group Scientific thinking: ask fundamental questions about reality and seek answers to problems that seem utterly trivial, or unanswerable to other people and reach conclusions about their data in ways resembling those of scientists Metacognition Cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing Metamemory: knowledge about memory Intelligence Intelligence: problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to life’s everyday experiences Individual differences: The stable, consistent ways in which people are different from each other The Standford-Binet tests Mental age: Binet’s measure of an individual’s level of mental development compared with that of others Intelligence quotient: A persons mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 (IQ = MA/CA x 100) Can be equal to, above, or below 100 Scores approximate normal distribution Normal distribution: A symmetrical distribution with a majority of the scores falling in the middle range of scores and a few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range 2-adulthood Most used test The Wechsler scales Widely-used test to assess intelligence WPPSI-III —> Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence III (4-6.5 years) WISC-IV integrated —> Wechsler intelligence scale for children IV integrated (6-16 years) WAIS-III) —> Wechsler adult intelligence scale Types of intelligence Sternberg’s triarchic theory Intelligence comes in 3 forms Analytical intelligence: The ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast Creative intelligence: The ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine Practical intelligence: The ability to use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice Garner’s 8 frames of mind Verbal skills: the ability to think in words and to use language to express meaning Mathematical skills: the ability to care out mathematical operations Spatial skills: the ability to think three-dimensional Bodily-kine
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