PSYO 1011 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Cingulate Cortex, Parietal Lobe, Fusiform Gyrus
Course CodePSYO 1011
ProfessorLeanne Stevens,Shelley Adamo,Kevin Duffy,Jennifer Stamp
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The Nervous System
Behaviour is controlled by the nervous system.
Left Hemisphere: Does sequential analysis, systematic, logical interpretation of information. Interpretation
and production of symbolic information: language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory stored
in a language format.
Right Hemisphere: responsible for holistic functioning or processing multi-sensory input while
simultaneously to provide "holistic" picture of one's environment. Holistic functions such as dancing and
gymnastics. Memory is stored in auditory, visual and spatial modalities.
ridges [Gyrus]. Deep depressions/groves are call Fissures. It is also covered with Grey matter, or neuro-
connections lacking in myelin. White matter underline the grey matter, connecting one part of the cerebral cortex
to another. It is asymmetrical and each side processes slightly different information:
Prefrontal Cortex: Involved in complex cognitive functions like person's will to live, personality, and to
Frontal Eye Field: Responsible for controlling eye movement for the purpose of perception and awareness
Motor Cortex: Sits next to the parietal lobe. In a sense, it is like 'twins' to the somatosensory cortex in the parietal
lobe as the areas that governs a specific body part are parallel and directly next to each other. (Penfield & Boldrey,
Broca's area - A region on the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe, associated with speech production
Frontal lobe -Houses dopamine sensitive-neurons, associated with attention, short-term memory tasks, planning,
movement, impulse control, abstract thinking, social awareness, personality and motivation. It is most interconnected
region of the brain, often working alongside other brain parts to complete a task.
Posterior Parietal Cortex: Integral in spatial reasoning, attention and planned movements
Somatosensory Cortex: Initiates commands to control body movements.
Parietal lobe - Integrates sensory information like touch, smell.
Visual Cortex: Processing different aspects of vision, including shapes colour, shadow, lighting and orientation.
This does not mean that all the information from the left eye go to the right hemisphere. For instance the
right visual field of the left eye go to the left hemisphere. Whether or not an information is transmitted
contralaterally is dependent on what visual field it is.
The neurological information sensed by the optic nerves for a field of view is transmitted contralaterally or to the
opposite side, meaning that the left eye-field is processed on the right hemisphere of the occipital lobe.
Fusiform gyrus: Being also part of the temporal lobe, it is responsible for recognition, whether that is auditory, or
Occipital lobe - Processes visual information
Auditory Cortex :
Wernicke's Area : A region on the left hemisphere responsible for language comprehension
Insula: Located between the temporal lobe and the parietal, it is important in perception of bodily sensations,
emotional states, empathy (interpersonal experience) and addictive behaviour.
Temporal lobe - Retention of memory, language comprehension, and emotional association. Working with the Parietal
lobe, it is also responsible for processing auditory information
Cerebral Cortex: Control and initiates the cognitive and voluntary action. It has depressions/grooves [Sulcus] and
Thalamus: Sits on top of and connects the Midbrain - It is the central relay station in the brain.
Hypothalamus: Sit underneath(hypo-) the thalamus - regulates homeostasis and regulates eating/drinking.
Hippocampus - Important for putting short-term memory into long term memory storage
Amygdala - Processing of memory, decision-making and emotional responses
Nucleus accumbens (NAc): A structure involve in motivation, aversion, reward and reinforcement
Striatum: The largest structure in the basal ganglia. It houses many sub-collection of structures. It is a critical
component of the reward system and motor system. It is often involved in creating addictive behaviours.
Substantia nigra: Involved in the transmission of voluntary motor functions (fine-movements). It is wedged
between the thalamus and the midbrain, although it doesn't connect directly to the midbrain.
Basal Ganglia - A collection of structures surrounding the thalamus. Contains large amounts of glutamatergic and
Corpus Callosum - A thick band of nerve fibres that connect the two hemisphere of the brain
Cingulate gyrus - Located within the cingulate. It has clinical significance in depression and schizophrenia
Cingulate Cortex - involved with emotion formation and processing, learning, and memory.
Limbic System: Part of the Forebrain, responsible for emotional response, reward and memory
Central Nervous System (CNS) comprising of the brain and the spine
Some process sensory inputs from the optic nerves, cochlear nerve, and many other types of sensory cells. Brain regions responsible for
these are considered as the primary sensory areas
Some process and initiates and coordinate movement and motor functions. These areas in the brain are consider to be the primary motor
And lastly there are areas that process information but are not directly associated with motor and sensory information. These areas are
considered to be the association cortex
As we see, the brain seem to have 3 distinct neurological purposes
Contribute to the coordination and the initiation of motor control (such as balance) as well as in cognitive function like
attention and language
Cerebellum: Part of the Hindbrain
Neuroanatomy, PSYO 1011, Textbook Notes
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attention and language
Midbrain: Part of the Midbrain, associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and
Pons: Part of the Hindbrain, monitors CO2in the blood
Medulla: Part of the Hindbrain, it regulates breathing, heart rate and blood pressure, circadian rhythm . Important also
for posture and locomotion.
Provide motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck as well as control/regulate cardiac and respiratory, consciousness,
sleep and eating functions. It also regulates the central nervous system.
A damage to the medulla either induces death or the Lock-in syndrome.
A damage to right side of the fusiform gyrus can induce prosopagnosia, (prosopo- Face) (agnosia; Inability to process info)
In Broca's case, the patient has deficit in speech production.
A damage to Broca's area can lead to aphasia (a- Not) (phaso- Speech) (-ia condition)
In Wernicke's case, the patient has trouble creating comprehensive speech.
A damage to Wernicke's area also leads to aphasia or the deficiency in ability to speak/comprehend language.
A damage to the right association cortex (parietal lobe) can result in contralateral neglect, or the condition where individual
don't react to on side of space, usually left side. Eating from only one side of the plate is a common symptom of this disorder
A severing of the corpus collosum to stop interhemispheric refractory epilepsy can result in the split brain syndrome a
condition where one cannot name things on the left visual field but could with the right visual field.
A change to the fusiform gyrus can create false association and recognition of sensory inputs, leading to dyslexia and/or
An apoptosis of dopamine-producing/sensitive neurons in the Substantia Nigra induces Parkinson's
Damage/Change to various parts of the Brain and their associated neurological disorders
Cranium : The skull protecting the brain
Rhombencephalon: Hindbrain - Supports vital functions
Mesencephalon: Midbrain - Supports motor control, arousal, temperature control
Diencephalon: Contains most of the limbic system
Telencephalon: Develops into the Cerebrum
Prosencephalon: Forebrain. It is composed of two parts
Evolution and the embryonic structure of the Brain
Contain some reflex circuits
8 cervical (C1-C8) nerves emerge from the cervical spine; cervical means of the neck (there are 8 cervical nerves, but only 7 cervical
12 thoracic (T1-T12) nerves emerge from the thoracic spine; thoracic means of the chest
5 lumbar (L1-L5) nerves emerge from the lumbar spine; lumbar means from the lower back region
5 sacral (S1-S5) nerves emerge from the sacral bone; sacral means of the sacrum, the bony plate at the base of the vertebral column
1 coccygeal nerve emerge from the coccygeal bone; coccygeal means of the coccyx, the tailbone
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) Controls the external aspect of human behaviour (i.e. voluntary actions)
Sympathetic Nervous System (SyNS): Controls the fight-or-flight response. It is also closely associated with the CNS
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PsNS): responsible for regulating the body's unconscious actions. The parasympathetic system is
responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest"/"feed-and-breed"
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Controls the internal aspects of human behaviour. It is further split into another two systems. (While
most of it is unconsciously controlled, some, like breathing, can be consciously controlled.)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): It includes the
Secrete epinephrine and
Inhibit production of epinephrine
Converts glycogen to blood sugar
Converts blood sugar to glycogen
Inhibits / Contracts the bladder
Stimulates / Relaxes the bladder
SyNS is not just for stress - it constricts the blood vessel to maintain blood pressure through out the day.
Responsible for the actions we do, conscience or unconscious. They also activate the endocrine glands
Split into many different types of motor neuron
Takes in and integrates information to be processes by the CNS
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