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PSYO 2090 Chapter Notes -Heritability, Genetic Disorder, Intellectual Disability

Course Code
PSYO 2090

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Cognitive development in middle and late childhood
Piaget’s concrete operational stage
Preschool child’s thought is preoperational
Some preschool children may show concrete operational thought
The concrete operational stage
7-11 years
Can perform concrete operations
Can classify things into different sets and subsets
Seriation: The concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)
Transitivity: in concrete operational thought, a mental concept that underlies the ability to combine relations logically in order to understand
certain conclusions
If A is longer than B and B is longer than see children can understand that A is thus longer than C
Information processing
Long-term memory: relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory that increases with age during middle and late childhood
Knowledge and expertise
When individuals have expertise about a particular subject, their memory also tends to be good regarding material related to that subject
Elaboration: An important strategy that involves engaging in more extensive processing of information
Fuzzy trace theory
States that memory is best understood by considering 2 types of memory representations:
Verbatim memory trace
In this theory, older children’s better memory is attributed to fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information
Critical thinking: thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence
Creative thinking: The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems
Convergent thinking: Thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking required on conventional tests
of intelligence
Divergent thinking: thinking that produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity
Brainstorming: a technique in which individuals try to come up with ideas and play off each idea.
This can be done alone or in a group
Scientific thinking: ask fundamental questions about reality and seek answers to problems that seem utterly trivial, or unanswerable to
other people and reach conclusions about their data in ways resembling those of scientists
Cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing
Metamemory: knowledge about memory
Intelligence: problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to life’s everyday experiences
Individual differences: The stable, consistent ways in which people are different from each other
The Standford-Binet tests
Mental age: Binet’s measure of an individual’s level of mental development compared with that of others
Intelligence quotient: A persons mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 (IQ = MA/CA x 100)
Can be equal to, above, or below 100
Scores approximate normal distribution
Normal distribution: A symmetrical distribution with a majority of the scores falling in the middle range of scores and a few scores
appearing toward the extremes of the range
Most used test
The Wechsler scales
Widely-used test to assess intelligence
WPPSI-III —> Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence III (4-6.5 years)
WISC-IV integrated —> Wechsler intelligence scale for children IV integrated (6-16 years)
WAIS-III) —> Wechsler adult intelligence scale
Types of intelligence
Sternberg’s triarchic theory
Intelligence comes in 3 forms
Analytical intelligence: The ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast
Creative intelligence: The ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine
Practical intelligence: The ability to use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice
Garners 8 frames of mind
Verbal skills: the ability to think in words and to use language to express meaning
Mathematical skills: the ability to care out mathematical operations
Spatial skills: the ability to think three-dimensional
Bodily-kinesthetic skills: the ability to manipulate objects and be physically skilled
Musical skills: sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone
Interpersonal skills: the ability to understand and effectively interact with others
Intrapersonal skills: the ability to understand oneself and effectively direct one’s life
Naturalistic skills: the ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems
Music and intelligence
Improvement in general intelligence due to music training
The changes are small
The influence of genetics
By late adolescence, the heritability of intelligence is about 0.75, which reflects a strong genetic influence
The heritability index has several flaws
Environmental influences
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