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Chapter 1

PSYO 2470 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Frontal Lobe, Paul Broca, Gustav Fritsch


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYO 2470
Professor
Stamp Jennifer
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1
History of neuroscience
Views of the brain
1) Ancient Greece:
“The brain is the organ of sensation”
- They reached this conclusion with the thinking of ‘structure = function’
- Hippocrates believed that the brain was not only involved in sensation but also where
intelligence evolves.
- Aristotle believed the heart to be where the intellectual comes from and the brain was a
‘blood cooling’ mechanism.
2) Roman empire:
- Galen embraced Hippocrates’ view of the brain and did inspections to sheep, he saw the
two main structures of the brain: the cerebellum and the cerebrum. And draw conclusion
as the Greeks did, and deducted that the cerebellum is for muscle controls and the
cerebrum for sensation and perception.
- Galen also found out that the brain is hollow (ventricles) and that fluid runs through the
spaces.
Galen’s view prevailed for 1500 years!!
3) The 19th century:
- Andreas Vesalius added more detail to the structure of the brain to Galen’s principles.
- Descartes believed that the ‘fluid-mechanical’ theory did not explain human behavior to
its entirety. He believed that the mind and the brain where two separate entities that
interact with each other; where the mind is more of a ‘spiritual’ unit.
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