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Chapter 8

PSYO 3280 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Vocal Folds, Extraversion And Introversion, Radical Behaviorism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYO 3280
Professor
Dr.Simon Sherry
Chapter
8

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PSYO 3280
Personality: Theory and Research
Chapter 8 Textbook Notes
Behavioural and Learning Theories
Ivan Pavlov: Outlined and experimented with how new behaviours can be
developed.
oKnown for his accidental discovery of the kind of learning called
classical conditioning.
Classical Conditioning: A conditioned stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a
conditioned response by being paired with and immediately preceding an
unconditioned stimulus.
oClassical conditioning is more likely when we are biologically prepared
to express the conditioned response.
Cognitive neuroscience has focused on the basal ganglia and frontal cortex as
areas of the brain that are activated by rewards and punishments.
The Unconditioned and Conditioned Stimulus and Response
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that has an inherent meaning on its
own, without need to be paired with anything else.
Unconditioned Response(UCR): The seemingly automatic, hard-wired
response to the UCS.
Conditioned Stimulus(CS): A stimulus paired with an UCS that comes to have
an inherent meaning without the presence of the UCS.
Conditioned Response(CR): The UCR is now ellicited in the presence of the
CS.
Extinction: The CR eventually disappears because the pleasurable stimulus is
no longer evident and eventually the organism adapts to this new reality.
Flooding: A behaviour modi4cation technique used to treat extreme phobias
of speci4c objects.
oThe person is exposed to the feared object and is not permitted to
escape.
Di7erentiation: Occurs when the organism learns to respond speci4cally to
the exact CS and does not respond to a highly similar stimulus.
Generalization: The CR occurs in response to stimuli that resembles the
original CS.
Blocking E7ect: The introduction of a second UCS once another UCS has
already been used to create a CR.

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oThe response to the second UCS is suppressed (blocked) by the already
established conditioning link.
Personality Dierences among Pavlov’s Dogs
Pavlov focused on personality di7erences among his dogs, with some dogs
being active and excitable and others being listless and inhibited.
Experimental Neuroses: The confusion and distress that Pavlov’s dogs
experienced when they were required to make a choice between expressing
two or more conditioned responses of equal strength and magnitude.
Personality di7erences among animals are stable over time and are re;ected
in everyday behaviours.
Radical Behaviourism and John B. Watson
John B. Watson: Key theorist who became increasingly disenchanted with the
psychoanalytic approach and its focus on introspection as a way of
elucidating unconscious processes.
Behaviourism: An approach that focuses on the study of observable actions
rather than cognitions and internal stimuli.
Radical Behaviourism: The exclusive focus is on overt behaviour that can be
observed, predicted, and controlled.
oThis de4nition of behaviour for instance would indicate verbal
behaviour isn’t represented by words or concepts, but by the
movement of vocal cords.
Radical Environmentalism: The environment is a much more important
determinant of behaviour than is heredity or temperament.
Prepared Learning: We are biologically prepared to fear only certain stimuli
and not others.
Watsons Views on Personality
Watsons radical behaviourism focused on only observable actions and not
cognitions hidden inside the person
Little Albert was used to show how fears and phobias can be conditioned
Mowrer’s two factor model showed how phobias re;ect both operant and
classical conditioning.
Watson felt that personality did not really exist in that environmental
contingencies could shape the person into anything or anybody.
According to Watson, personality is the end product of our habit systems and
is essentially in place and 4xed by the age of 30.
Sensitivity to Punishment and Reinforcement
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