SOSA 1200X Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Postfeminism, Irene Parlby, Squaw

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Chapter 9 - Gender and Sexuality
Key Terms
Bisexual
oA person who is sexually attracted to people of both sexes
Boyat
oWomen living in an Arab country of the Middle East who adopts a masculine
style of dress and appearance (ie. by cutting her hair short) as a way of defying
gender expectations
Complicit masculinity
oForms of masculinity that do not contribute to or embody male hegemony yet
still benefit from it
Dragon Lady
o(Tajima and Das Gupta) a stereotype of East Asian women as tough, ruthless, and
mercenary; the sterotype is seen in film and TV portrayals of hardened
prostitutes and madams, and women who fight with nasty, angry facial
expressions
Feminist essentialism (or essentialist feminism)
oA feminist approach that involves looking at differences between the way
women and men think while arguing for the equality – and sometimes female
superiority – in that difference
Feminist liberalism (or liberal feminism)
oA feminist approach that typically involves working towards pay equity for
women; this form of feminism is criticized as reflecting more the concerns of
white middle-class Western women than the women of different ethnicities and
classes
Pay equity
Compensation paid to women in traditionally female-dominated
industries (ie. childcare, library science, nursing, and secretarial
work) where salaries and benefits have been lower than those
given to employees in comparable (in terms of educational
qualifications, hours worked, and social value) professions
dominated by men)
Feminist postmodernism (or postmodernist feminism)
oA feminist approach that involves looking at women more as subjects (ie. people
with voices and standpoints of interpretation) who guide research, rather than
as objects being researched
Queer theory
(J. Butler) an approach that rejects the idea that gender identity is
connected to some biological essence, proposing instead that
gender reflects social performance on a continuum, with “male”
and “female” at opposite poles
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Ideology of fag
(G. Smith) the use of such label as “gay” and “lesbian” pejoratively
as a way to make people conform to strictly proscribed gender
roles (ie. young man who likes figure skating – “so gay”)
Feminist socialism (or socialist feminism)
oA feminist approach that involves looking at the intersections of oppression
between class and gender, focusing mainly on the struggles faced by lower-class
women
Feminization
oThe process whereby an occupational sphere becomes dominated by and
associated with women (ie. secretarial work, clerical work); feminized
occupations are usually rewarded with lower salaries and fewer benefits
Gay
oAn informal term for someone (male or female) who is sexually attracted to
people of the same sex
Geisha
oA traditional occupation for Japanese women; expected to be well trained in the
arts and capable of intelligent conversation so that they can entertain well-to-do
customers in the geisha house
Gender
o(A. Oakley) the socially constructed and socially unequal division of masculinity
and femininity, as opposed to the biological division of sex
Gendered
oDenoting occupations or post-secondary programs dominated either by men or
by women
Gender role
oThe role that a culture or society assigns as “normal” for boys/men and
girls/women
Hegemonic masculinity
o(R. Gramsci) practices and beliefs that normalize and naturalize men’s
dominance and women’s subordination
Heterosexual
oA person who is sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex
Homosexual
oA person who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex
Indian Princess
oAn Aboriginal woman portrayed or seen as beautiful, submissive to white men,
and ready to betray her nation for the love of a European man
Intersex
oA person with both male and female sexual characteristics, as a result of a
biological condition that produces either an atypical combination of male and
female chromosomes or both male and female genitals/secondary sexual
characteristics
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