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Chapter 2

NRS 213 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Intellectual Disability, Hearing Aid, Personal Boundaries


Department
NURS
Course Code
NRS 213
Professor
daniellewith
Chapter
2

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NURS2135 Week 2 Reading Notes
Reading 1: Chapter 1 – Understanding Disability by WHO
What is Disability?
Disability can be viewed in many dierent ways
oMedical Model
oSocial Model – people are viewed as being disabled by society rather than by their
bodies
oBio-Psycho-Social Model – combina#on of medical model and social model
Disability is the umbrella term for impairments, ac#vity limita#ons, and par#cipa#on
restric#ons, referring to the nega#ve aspects of the interac#on between an individual (with a
health condi#on) and that individuals contextual factors (environmental and personal factors)
Disability is not an a*ribute of the person
Disability results from the interac#on between persons with impairments and a+tudinal and
environmental barriers that hinder par#cipa#on in society
Environment
Environment has a big impact on the experience and extent of disability
Inaccessible environments create disability by crea#ng barriers to par#cipa#on and inclusion
oEx. A deaf person without a sign language interpreter
oEx. A wheelchair user in a building with no elevators/accessible bathrooms
Poor health = increased risk for disability
oI.e., Environmental factors such as safe water, sanita#on, nutri#on, poverty, working
condi#ons, climate, or access to health care all can cause disability
The environment can be changed to improve health condi#ons prevent impairments and
improve outcomes for people with disabili#es
oI.e., Accessible design of environment/transporta#on
oSignage (for people with sensory impairments)
oAccess to support services/health care
oMore opportuni#es for work/employment for disabled persons
Nega#ve a+tudes towards people with disabili#es will aect how they interact with society =
barrier (i.e., persons with disabili#es may develop low self-esteem, thus withdrawing from social
par#cipa#on)
New Emphasis on Environmental Factors (Box 1.1.)
The Interna#onal Classi6ca#on of Func#oning, Disability and Health (ICF) advanced the
understanding and measurement of disability
ICF emphasizes environmental factors in crea#ng disability
Categorized in 3 interconnected areas:
1. Impairments – problems in body func#on or altera#ons in body structure (i.e.,
paralysis/blindness)
2. Ac%vity Limita%on – di;cul#es in execu#ng ac#vi#es (i.e., walking/ea#ng)
3. Par%cipa%on Restric%ons – problems with involvement in everyday life (i.e., discrimina#on)
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