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Chapter 1-11

ANTH-110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-11: Middle Paleolithic, Ethnogenesis, Forensic Anthropology

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ANTH101 eCampus
Goals (By Module)
These goals are designed to help you focus on the main points of each module as well as prepare
for the cumulative final exam. Some of the written questions on the final could be very much like
these ones, so these goals will help you to study for the final.
You will also note that I have suggested some long answer (essay) questions below. There will be
a choice of two given to you on the final exam; the others could still appear in the short answer
My recommendation would be to read the goals before you begin the module, and then revisit the
goals afterward to ensure that you can address each of the goals fully.
Module 1 – Simply introduce yourself to the other students and familiarize yourself with the
course and Blackboard layout. This module will not be tested.
Module 2
After finishing Module 2, I can…
Discuss how Anthropologists collect their data, including fieldwork and participant
observation, and informants.
Define concepts such as “explanation”, “association” or “theory” and discuss how data is
used to test explanations.
Define all the terms in the glossary activity at the end of the module.
A possible long answer (essay) question:
Describe anthropology and its role in the world, including:
oidentifying the four major subdiscipines
odescribing three features that set Anthropology aside from other disciplines.
odiscussing how Applied Anthropology has a role outside academia.
oat least four examples of how Anthropology is relevant in today’s world (also refer
to your “Anthropology in the News” assignment).
Module 3
After finishing Module 3, I can…
Define archaeology, and state at least three major goals of archaeology.
Seeks to reconstruct the daily life and customs of people who lived in the past and to trace and
explain cultural changes and reconstruct history.
Discuss the importance of archaeological context and the impact of pot-hunting
Context is the information that surrounds an artifact when its in its original location. Physically
relationship to other items around it. Pot hunting can change its original use once it has been
disturbed for those that find it. Loss of knowledge
Describe what sites are, and how they might be found and excavated.

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Sites are known are known or suspected locations of human activity in the past that contain a
record of activity. Places humans camped ect. Many sites found by happenstance. Looking for
List the different types of evidence that archaeologists use to interpret the past, and
the methods that archaeologists could use to analyze that evidence (also refer to the
“Whazzat” assignment you did).
Discuss the difference between absolute and relative dates, and summarize in detail at
least four different dating techniques work (remember: use the information in the text, and
the chart in Activity 3 of the Module).
Absolute- used to measure how old a specimen is in years
Relative- to determine the age of a specimen or deposit relative to another specimen or deposit
Paleomagnetic Dating- when rocks form it records the ancient magnetic field of the earth. The
geomagnetic patterns in rocks can be used to date the fossils within those rocks.
Fission- track dating- determines the absolute age of fossils deposits. Dates mineral
contemporaneous with the deposit in which fossils are found and it requires the prior occurrence
of a high-temperature event, such as volcanic eruption
Potassium- K is known quanity so the age of a material containing potassoim can be measured by
the amount of K compared with the amount of Ar it contains
Electron Spin Resonance- technique that, like thermoluminescence dating, measures trapped
electrons from surrounding radioactive material.
Explain the principles of natural selection, and give some examples of natural
Natural selection depends on variation within a population. The primary sources of biological
variarion are genetic recombination, mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and hybridization.
Discuss the major concepts involved in the study of heredity, including Mendelian
genetics and the modern synthesis.
Describe the different sources of genetic variability.
Discuss how genetics and natural selection might be applied to behavioural traits.
Define all the terms in the glossary activity at the end of the module.
Module 4
After finishing Module 4, I can…
Know the difference between adaptation and acclimatization, and how culture plays
a role in adaptation.
Adaptation- are genetic changes that give their carriers a better chance to survive and reproduce
than individuals without the genetic change who live in the same environment
Acclimatization- involves physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental changes.
May have underlying genetic factors but they are not themselves genetic.
Describe in detail at least four examples of modern human physical variation.
Skin Color- The color of a persons skin depends on both amount of pigment, or melanin, in the
skin and amount of blood in the small blood vessels of the skin.The amount of melanin is related
to the climate in which a person lives.

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Height- poor nutrition and disease comes out of longtitudinal studies.
Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases- follows as similar pattern among human population. Urban
settlements also are likely to have poor sanitization and contaminated water. Inherited resistance
to particular diseases.
Sickle-Cell Anemia- disk shaped red blood cells assume a crescent shape when deprived of
oxygen. This is caused by a variation form of the genetic instructions for hemoglobin. People with
this have inherited the same allele(Hbs’) from both parents and are therefore homozygous for that
Discuss the traits that all primates share, and why they exist.
Primates share two bones in the lower part of the leg and in the forearm. A collar bone. Flexible
prehensile (grasping) hands. Stereoscopic vision. Large brain. One or two offspring’s at a time.
Long maturation of the young. High degree of dependence on social life and learning.
Describe the goal of the “Great Ape Project”, and what justification they use for
granting apes some human rights.
Identify the main groups of living primates, and describe their main features (use the
chart in Activity 5 to assist you with this).
Describe the features that make hominids distinct from hominoids
Hominids- are totally bipedal, walk on two legs and do not need the arms for locomotion.
Hominid brain- large-cerebral cortex. Behavior is learned and culturally patterned. Labor in food
and sharing in adulthood.
Summarize the arboreal and visual predation theories for the emergence of primates.
Summarize the divergence of the hominids from hominoids in the late Miocene
Apes and monkeys diverged in appearance. Most of fossils are from the early Miocene are
described as proto-apes. Middle to late Miocene diversified and spread geographically. Two main
groups- dryopithecids found in Europe, and sivapithecids found in western and southern Asia
Define all the terms in the glossary activity at the end of the module.
Note: see Module 8 for an essay question that incorporates some of the materials in this
1. Contrast the concepts of adaptation and acclimatization.
2. What is the role of culture in human adaptation?
3. For each of the seven examples of modern human physical variation, summarize
each example in detail, including how each functions to allow humans to adapt to
a particular environment. You should also note the names of the “rules” associated
with physical variation, if given (for example, Glogers rule).
4. Describe the problems associated with the use of the word race, including racism.
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