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Chapter 8

PSYC-223 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Intelligence Quotient, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

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Chapter 8 Intelligence
8.1 Some basic theories of Intelligence
Psychometric theory
-psychometricians are psychologists who specialize in measuring characteristics such as intelligence and personality
Begin their work with a series of test and looks for patterns in performance
-“peaas G fato: elieed sat hilde to e sat egadless of the pole the ee faed ith hile othe
researchers such as Thurstone have found distinct patterns and domains (ie word processing vs memory, vs spatial awareness)
-Carroll: proposed both domain general (g factor) and specific intelligence; 8 broad categories such as fluid and crystallized
intelligence, but all the hierarchial levels are maintained by a general g factor
Fluid intelligence: ability to perceive relations between stimuli while crystallized intelligence is traditional knowledge: including
vocab, understanding of language, facts
Gardner multiple intelligences: rather than basing results on test scores he proposed thatpeople are smart in different ways
-linguistic, logical-mathematical and spatial intelligence are included in psychometric theories but the other 6 are not
-certain skills are regulated by different areas(ie studying brain damage) and also develop at different times
-Gades theory prompted study of other intelligences including EI: abilityto use ones own and others emotions to solve
problems; includes understanding and perceiving emotion, and regulating emotions
People high in EI have higher self-esteem, more effective at work and in interpersonal relationships
What effect does Intelligence theory have on education? Gardner believed schools should foster the various intelligences rather
than the traditional 3; teachers should gear instruction towards a childs strengths; does not mean children should be pigeon
holed, but rather taught in many ways
Sternbergs theory of successful intelligence: an ability to achieve ones own goals; can be short term (have a snack) or long term
goals (career success)
1) Analytic ability: analyzing problems and developing a variety of solutions
2) Creative ability: involves dealing adaptively with unfamiliar situations and problems
3) Practical ability involves knowing which solution will actually work best
-if skills are separate, then scores should not correlate between the three; if it is a general intelligence, the correlation should
be close to 1. Study found the abilities are correlated but far from perfectly (so abilities are connected but not 1 in the same)
Cultural Influences: intelligence depends on what is valued
-in Brazil, young boys can sell candy and make change based on the recognition of the bills, but cannot actually identify the
numbers; New Guinea boys can navigate bodies of water with no mathematical ability
8.2 Measuring Intelligence and factors which impact IQ
-efos i the eal 9s euied ailit to teah a ide aa of ailities, sie shool eollet as so high
Ho to deal ith the less apale hilde ho didt oe fo ealth failies?
-Binet and Simon introduced the idea of mental age: the difficulty of the problems the child could solve based on age (ie an 8
year old who is really smart may have a mental age (MA) of 13)
-Terman coined the term intelligence quotient IQ as MA/CA (X100); a child of age appropriate ability would have a score of 100
-testing still popular in the USA, less so here in Canada. IQ more linked with public policy in the USA
-testing is good in the sense that it provides quick, inexpensive objective results, but individual professional testing allows the
examiner to note nervousness which may effect performance
-infants require creativemethods to test, since they cannot answer questions; Bayley scale is used and consists of 5 scales:
cognitive, language, motor, social emotional and adaptive behaviour (ie a 16 month old should be able to build a 3 block tower)
-infancy IQ tests poor predictors of later IQ til age 2 (note that they test very different abilities- sensory processing vs cognition)
-habituation is a better predictor of IQ than Bayley score (those who habituate quicker are later more intelligent- rapid
comprehension and understanding of the world)
-by age 6 IQ tests are quite good at predicting later IQ
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