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Chapter 11

PSYC 281 Chapter 11: Chapter 11 study questions
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 281
Professor
Russell Powell
Semester
Winter

Description
1. What is observational learning? Define contagious behavior and stimulus enhancement and give an example of each. - Observational learning is when an observer witnesses a behaviour performed by a model, and the observer’s behaviour is subsequently changed - Contagious behaviour is a more-or-less instinctive or reflexive behaviour triggered by the occurrence of the same behaviour in another individual, such as yawning - Stimulus enhancement is the probability of a behaviour is changed because as individual’s attention is drawn to a particular item or location by the behaviour of another individual. This is seen when one eats or drinks because someone else is and they’re then aware of the available food 2. What are vicarious emotional responses? Diagram, with appropriate abbreviations, the higher-order conditioning process by which a smile can become a conditioned stimulus for pleasant emotions. - Vicarious emotional responses are classically conditioned emotional responses that results from seeing those emotional responses exhibited by others - Smiles from others: pleasurable events → pleasant emotions in oneself (NS1: US → UR) - Smiles from others → pleasant emotions in oneself (CS1 → CR) - Object or event: smiles from others → pleasant emotions in oneself (NS2: CS1 → CR) - Object or event: pleasant emotions in oneself (CS2 → CR) 3. List three features that determine whether an observer will attend to a model’s behavior. List three ways in which acquisition of information through observation can translate into performance of the behavior. - There are four features that determine whether an observer will attend to a model’s behaviour: - The observer must be sensitive to the consequences of the model’s behaviour; an observer is more likely to attend to a behaviour if the behaviour is reinforced - The observer receives reinforcement for the behaviour of attending to a model - The observer must have sufficient skills to benefit from the modeling - The model’s personal characteristics can strongly influence the extent to which one will attend to their behaviour - There are three ways in which acquisition can translate into performance through observation: - One is more or less likely to perform a modeled behaviour when one has observed the modeled behaviour being reinforced or punished respectively - One is more or less likely to perform a modeled behaviour when we ourselves will experience reinforcement or punishment for performing that behaviour - One’s history of reinforcement or punishment for performing modeled behaviours will influence one’s performance 4. What is true imitation? Describe evidence indicating that some animals are capable of true imitation. - True imitation is a form of observational learning that involves the close duplication of a novel behaviour or sequence of behaviours - Evidence indicating that some animals are capable of true imitation include kittens pressing a lever for food after watching their mother do so (but their mother acts as a type of stimulus enhancer), pigeons demonstrated complex sequence of behaviours after watching another pigeon perform them, and orangutans would hang hammocks and build bridges and use boats after watching human caretakers do the same 5. Describe Bandura’s Bobo doll studies, including some of the sex differences that were found. Why has evidence about the relationship between violent media and violent behavior been un
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