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Chapter 9

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Agricultural Economics
AGEC 242
Brahm Canzer

Chapter 9 – Top Performance through empowerment, teamwork and communication Empowering Employees - Empowerment: giving employees shared authority, responsibility and decision making o Motivates workers by adding challenges, and sense of ownership - Sharing Information and Decision-making Authority o Keep them informed of financial performance  Allows employees to understand more about organization’s strategic thinking  Allows employees to understand how their work contributes to profits  Risk is leaking information to competitors o Give employees broad authority to make decisions  Might be responsible for purchasing supplies, hiring, scheduling, pay increases - Linking Rewards to Company Performance o Employee Stock Ownership Plans: Company holds stocks for employee  Accounts continue to grow in value tax-free  When leave company (retire or leave), can cash stock  Motivates to work harder and smarter because they own part of company o Stock Options: employee owns stocks themselves (whether still working or left)  Beneficial when stock price is much higher than option offered to employee  Used to be limited to senior executives and board of directors. Now for everyone Team - Group of people with skills that share common purpose - Work Teams: o Quite common o Relatively permanent groups, may involve assembly and packaging - Problem Solving Teams: o Only gathered to solve problem  When solved, are disbanded o Sometimes companies keep the teams, but perhaps make smaller - Self-managed Teams: o Effective when combines employees with range of skills and functions o Cross-trained to perform each other’s tasks o Whole-Foods use this  10 teams per store, each team in charge of separate sector - Cross-Functional Teams: o Made up of members from different functions o Usually to work on specific problem, but can be permanent as well o To have different perspectives - Virtual Teams: Geographically separated co-workers o Uses telecommunications and info tech o Adv is flexibility  can work regardless of location, time zone, organizational relationship o Can be difficult to manage, but companies that use them believe pros outweigh cons Team Characteristics - Team Size: as small as 2 people to 150 o Groups outside of 6-7 people can be effective, but added challenge to leader - Team Level and Diversity o Level of ability, experience, personality and the differences in these - Stages of Team Development o Forming: Members get to know each other o Storming: Individual personalities come out, conflicts may arise  Members need to work through uncertainties and conflicts o Norming: accept each other, resolve differences o Performing: interact frequently and handle conflicts constructively  Team Leader encourages everyone to contribute o Adjourning: when completed assigned task, want to wrap up and summarize experiences and accomplishments  Team Leader may want to have celebration Team Cohesiveness and Norms - Productivity usually maximized when team is cohesive o How motivated to remain a part of it  usually increases when members interact often o Promotes cooperative behavior, generosity and willingness to help each other - Achieve greater performance and efficiency if more cohesive - Team Norm: standard of conduct shared  not written formal guidelines o Identify key values and outlines members’ expectations o Positive: constructive work and accomplishment of team goals o Negative: reduced work effort, reduced quality and poor job attendance Team conflict - When one or person’s needs don’t match those of another - To be expected in most teams - Cognitive Conflict: differences of opinion (experience and expertise leading to different views) o Are willing to examine, compare and resolve differences to produce best solution o When able to
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