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Chapter 10

CHEM 110 Chapter 10 Smart Notes.pdf

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CHEM 110
Bryan Sanctuary

CHEM 110 Chapter 10 Smart Notes October, 2011 CHEM 110: Chapter 10 Smart Notes 10.1: Lewis Theory: An Overview o Lewis Theory Fundamental Ideas Electrons, especially valence electrons, play a fundamental role in chemical bonding. Ionic Bonding occurs when electrons are transferred from one atom to another (between positive and negative ions). Covalent Bonding occur when electrons are shared between atoms. Electrons are transferred or shared in such a way that each atom acquired an especially stable electron configuration (octet). Lewis Symbols Definition o A Lewis symbol consists of a chemical symbol to represent the nucleus and core (inner-shell) electrons of an atom, together with dots placed around the symbol to represent the valence electrons. Example Lewis Structure Definition o A Lewis Structure is a combination of Lewis symbols that represents either the transfer or the sharing of electrons in a chemical bond. Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds o For an Ionic Compound of a Main-Group Element The Lewis Symbol of the metal ion has no dots if all the valence electrons are lost CHEM 110 Chapter 10 Smart Notes October, 2011 The Ionic Charges of both cations and anions are shown. o Types of Ionic Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds Consist of monoatomic cations and monoatomic anions Ternary Ionic Compounds Consist of monoatomic and polyatomic ions CHEM 110 Chapter 10 Smart Notes October, 2011 10.2: Covalent Bonding: An Introduction o Octet Rule Definition A requirement of eight-valence-shell electrons for the atoms in a Lewis structure. o Exception The H atom can accommodate only two valence-shell electrons. o Single Covalent Bond Definition The sharing of a single pair of electrons between bonded atoms produces a single covalent bond. o Bond Pair Definition A pair of electrons in a covalent bond o Lone Pair Definition Electron pairs that are not involved in bonding. o Coordinate Covalent Bond Definition A covalent bond in which a single atom contributes both of the electrons to a shared pair. o Example CHEM 110 Chapter 10 Smart Notes October, 2011 o Multiple Covalent Bonds Definition Where more than one pair of electrons are shared in order to attain an octet. o Example IUPAC recommends we use an arrow with a half arrowhead when a single electron is moves and an arrow with a full arrowhead when a pair of electrons are moves. Types Double Covalent Bond o Depicted by = in a Lewis Structure. Example Triple Covalent Bond o Depicted by in a Lewis Structure Example
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