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Chapter 234

CHEM 110 Chapter 2 3 4 Smart Notes.pdf

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CHEM 110
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Chapter 2, 3, 4, Smart Notes CHEM 110 Friday, September 09, 2011 CHEM 110 Chapter 2, 3, 4 Smart Notes Chapter 2: Atoms and the Atomic Theory o Early Chemical discoveries and the Atomic Theory Law of Conservation of Mass The total mass of substances present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of substances Law of Constant Composition All samples of a compound have the same composition- the same proportions by mass of the constituent elements. Daltons Atomic Theory The 3 Assumptions of this Theory o Each chemical element is composed of minute, indivisible particles called atoms. Atoms can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change. o All atoms of an element are alike in mass (weight) and other properties but the atoms of one element are different from those of all other elements. o In each of their compounds, different elements combine in a simple numerical ratio, for example, one atom of A to one of B (AB), or one atom of A to two of B. The Law of Multiple Proportions o If two elements form more than a single compounds, the masses of one element combined with a fixed mass of the second are in the ratio of small whole numbers. o Electrons and other discoveries in Atomic Physics Chapter 2, 3, 4, Smart Notes CHEM 110 Friday, September 09, 2011 The Discovery of Electrons Chapter 2, 3, 4, Smart Notes CHEM 110 Friday, September 09, 2011 In 1897, by the Method outlined in 2-7(c) above, J. J. Thomson established the ratio of mass (m) to electric charge (e) for cathode rays, that is, m/e. Also, Thomson concluded that cathode rays are negatively charged fundamental particles of matter found in all atoms. Cathode rays subsequently became known as electrons. Chapter 2, 3, 4, Smart Notes CHEM 110 Friday, September 09, 2011
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