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Curriculum and Instruction
EDEC 247
Tino Bordonaro

EDEC 247 Policy Issues in Quebec Education Reading 1: Historical Roots  BNA Act made education provincially run  10 separate governmental authorities (own authorities, terminology, policies, etc.)  dissimilarities derive from various dates at which provincial governments were established  NL joined Canada almost a century after other provinces, so definitions of teaching objectives & educational needs changed  contrasting cultural, economic & social conditions  particularly true for Quebec  settlements began more than 3 centuries ago  started by French Roman Catholic colonists; English Protestants came so the province was ethnically split  split has increased with immigrants from Europe  rapid industrialization & urbanization also factors  5 periods distinguished in province’s educational development  1608-1760: French Regime; teaching under authority of Roman Catholic Church; some financial help from the state  1760-1841: several attempts to establish schools under central direction; encouragement of local effort to establish schools  1841-1867: administration of education almost wholly entrusted to local authorities; state shared school expenses with rate-payers of each district but only had supervisory functions  1867-1907: expansion of private & public institutions with emergence of public education under a dual system  1907-present day: intensified governmental action; creation of specialized institutions  1: The French Regime (1608-1760)  education was work of charity & church  elementary education given in few small village schools scattered over rural areas by school masters, parish priests & especially religious orders  clergy organized higher education  1635 Jesuits opened first college modeled after those in France  no administrative body concerned with education  Roman Catholic Church had authority  regular pastoral visits by bishop or his delegate kept him informed; also had full authority to accept or reject teacher’s credentials  generally, whatever undertaken by clergy/religious orders was supported by king  assistance from church was financial in form of seignourial grants  direct royal subsidies generous but irregular so private initiative tradition established  2: First Steps Toward the Establishment of a System of Public Education (1760-1841)  may be divided into 3 sections o continuation of private initiatives o attempts to create centralized school system o legislation which established local administrative bodies  government in London left responsibility of education to Anglican Church  in Canada, British allowed Roman Catholics (French) to continue to maintain its educational institutions  BUT no more royal subsidies; finding recruits for clergy & religious orders became difficult; competent lay teachers unavailable; people unaccustomed to organizing schools  existing institutions continued but faced difficulties  country population almost entirely deprived of schooling  English colonists better off since they lived in the towns  Quebec government tried to set up an educational system  knew problem & wanted to implement policy of assimilation  proposals aimed at centralization  1787 commission of inquiry on education appointed by Lord Dorchester o recommended establishment of free public school in each parish, secondary school in each county & common university in Quebec o system would be under direction of even parts English & French o all Legislative Council members supported it, but colony & England opposed  1801 Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning act suggested free elementary schools o authorized governor to appoint each parish/county commissioners entrusted with the building & organization of schools o was to appoint & fix salaries himself; to appoint trustees who were to regulate whole system on his behalf o Roman Catholic clergy rejected  saw it as an attempt to assimilate & change the faith of their people o regions with Protestant majorities put legislation to good use  1824 The Fabriques Schools Act o legislators turned backs on principle of administrative centralization  sought to use/create local bodies which would be responsible for education o fabriques devoted ¼ of budgets to the foundation & maintenance of schools o granted local bodies fullest autonomy o yielded few results  lack of interest & insufficient revenues  1829 Act for the Encouragement of Elementary Education o provided each township with board of trustees to provide the sole direction, control, management & administration of the schools o set up system of subsidies to ensure success of schools  government would pay ½ cost of purchasing/building each school; guarantee annual salary of school masters/mistresses; grant of 10 shillings for each poor child o required those who benefited to submit an annual report o originally approved for 3 years, revised/amplified in 1832; extended in 1834; government crisis in 1836 meant its ended o very popular but after withdrawal of subsidies most schools closed  3 principles were slowly emerging  state has responsibility to intervene in education o began to shoulder responsibility for elementary instruction wherever willingness to accept its help o strived to organize system of public schools o legislating to set up central & local administration o after 1829 adopted system of subsidies fixed by law  increasing decentralization o legislation sought to put to use/bring local administrative agencies who would ensure proper operation of schools  intervene but not impose uniformity on school system o allowed existence of variety of institutions o 1829 Act broadened subsidies to private schools  political crisis of 1836 affected education system  impossible to pass legislation until 1841  schools deprived of government aid so had to close  important studies of educational needs prepared way for laws passed during following 30 years o 1836 Lord Gosford  deplored lack of any central authority  absence of proper qualifications among teachers  casual attitude of students  failure of parents to interest themselves in children’s education o 1839 The Durham Report  Lord Durham emphasized general ignorance  based on report Arthur Buller recommended establishment of public school system & formation of normal schools  suggested schools provide different religious instruction for Protestants & Roman Catholics o 1840 Charles Mondelet  published series of letters recommending adaptation of New York State system  urged public schools operated by local trustees  privilege of dissent be granted to minority religious groups  superintendent of public instruction named by central government  legislation that followed found inspiration in all of these  3: The Elaboration of a School System (1841-1867)  dominant characteristics of administrative & financial poly in public education took shape  school commissions established & powers defined  suitable fiscal arrangements gradually evolved  Superintendent job created  provision made for religious dissent  1856 Council of Public Instruction established  4 major fields of development  gradual working out of an administrative system at the highest level o Education Act of 1841 created superintendent of public instruction job  meant to serve both Canada’s so 2 assistants created, one for each Canada o Act of 1843 for Upper Canada & Acts of 1845/1846 for Lower Canada incorporated the separation & gave each province its own superintendent o duties: distribution of public funds; personal inspection of schools; making of suggestions about application of law to local authorities; preparation for legislature of annual report on state of public schools  often subject to pressure, criticism & attack  1845 granted secretary & clerk  1856 extended powers with control over normal schools, certification of teachers & acco
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